Crime rates Sri Lanka is continued to turn like a societal melanoma since 1944. New methods are required in order to take determinations sing a offense. In such an juncture, the tribunal of jurisprudence takes aid of criminology. Main constituents of the criminology are fauna, chemical science, natural philosophies, computing machine scientific discipline, statistics, and mathematics. The capital penalty is non reopened with human rights point of position. Unfortunately nowadays we observe that the offenses are so common happening in our state. Criminals search for legion ways in order to perpetrate offenses with the usage of progress of the engineering. All offense seeking mechanisms of our state should be modified with the modern high engineering methods in order to control offenses. Not merely the policies of a state, but besides techniques which we use to forestall offenses lend to the addition of the offense rates.
2 Bing a democratic state, we do non pattern capital penalty sing wrongdoers. The rate of offenses could be reduced certain extent using the new engineering. More over poorness contributes to increase the offense rate of our state.
3. Most of offenses are non reported or non recorded, non followed through, or non able to be proved.A Every offense violates the jurisprudence, while every misdemeanor of the jurisprudence does non number as a offense. As an illustration: A breaches of contactA are ranked as offense under the civil jurisprudence, but it is non considered as a offense.
4. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usage of engineering to control offenses and to keep the jurisprudence and order in Sri Lanka.
5. The thought of offense came from legendary or mythology. Some spiritual communities consider offense as a “ wickedness ” . Good spiritual sermon ‘s had pointed out the effects of perpetrating offenses in historical books. Searching felons and penalizing them is a judiciary procedure in order to minimise the offense rate of a state or a society. Further the Department of Police has duty to subject wrongdoers to the tribunals. The male parent of the criminology is considered as professor Edmond Lokard. He made a celebrated stating that every touch makes substances.
6. Sri Lanka practiced a tribunal system for felons in the history called “ Raja Sabha ” and it was an grounds based methodological analysis which had been used to place the felons. Soon Sri Lanka usage modern engineering to observe offenses to a certain extent. A
REASONS FOR CRIMES
7. Basically offenses in our state are taken topographic point because of following grounds. Some of these grounds could be controlled with utilizing modern engineering for a certain extent. Those grounds are as follows:
a. Poverty of the state.
B. Morale values.
c. Education of the citizens.
d. Religious motive.
e. Social jobs.
f. Public perceptual experience.
g. Gun civilization.
h. Drugs usage/drugs trafficking/illicit drugs.
i. Degrading minorities.
Present PROCEDURE ON CRIMES IN SRI LANKA
8. Crime can be classified into classs as follows:
a. Crimes against belongings.
B. Crimes against Public order.
c. Crimes in signifier of violent.
9. Chiefly police handle offenses. When there is demand of utilizing engineering, the constabularies make usage the constabulary officers who are good trained on condemnable probe. these officers are called Scene of Crime Officers ( SOCO ) . Once after retrieve any offense, the constabulary produced relevant suspect or suspects in forepart of the tribunals. If non, the constabulary carry out probe on the order of the tribunal.
10. Magistrate ‘s tribunal or a High Court is holding primary legal power in the instances of offenses. The several legal spheres are provided by the Code of Criminal Procedure.
REQUIREMENT OF TECHNOLOGY IN CRIMES DETECTION
11. Ordinary people commit offenses usually. Legal personals and constabularies personal who are trained in managing offenses may besides perpetrate offenses. Then the sensing of offenses is hard.
12. Soon the progress engineerings are used for offenses. Therefore, sensing of offenses is non easy undertaking like the antediluvian epoch.
13. Sri Lanka being a 3rd universe state the techniques used for offense bar is in an infant age. Sri Lankan Crime statistics shows that most of offenses are pending on probe giving us some thought about the probe system of our state. Most of juncture ‘s technological failure paved manner for the pending probes. As illustrations following statistics relevant to the sedate offenses indicate that we are to travel for new engineering:
Entire no of grave offenses
Pending on probe
( Beginning: Web Site Department of Police, Sri Lanka )
14. Since we faced 30 old ages war in recent yesteryear, most of people are trained on managing arms. Some arms may be remained in resistance. There may be so many explosives and arms which have non been detected by security forces. Though it is non at hand but some clip later on, there is a inclination to increase offenses in history of these concealed points.
.15. There were cases where some people tried to publish money with common usage of computing machine engineering. With the available cyberspace installations, some people try to acquire cognition for offenses. Some people may keep contacts with foreign terrorists groups and felons utilizing purpose installations and other public communicating systems.
16. General usage of Mobile phone besides may be contributed for organized offenses. It is provided connectivity among felons or condemnable organisations. With commercial purpose any one is permitted to acquire nomadic connexion without uncovering so many personal specifics. Some organic structure may utilize this relaxation of nomadic connectivity to accomplish condemnable aims. Intelligence beginnings are bound with the bing jurisprudence to make their operation freely. But when we are utilizing modern engineering to uncover these it is really much velocity every bit good as efficient and effectual.
17. .During the last three decennaries of war in Sri Lanka, when military forces achieved some additions in North, the effects were in Colombo. Colombo is the economic hub of Sri Lanka. Any terrorists or any condemnable can do sedate losingss to the economic system of Sri Lanka if he or she targets on economic vulnerable topographic points in Colombo. Some clip it was revealed that LTTE carders used national individuality card with a Muslim name. With utilizing those individuality cards they managed to come to Colombo.
18. Banks and other fiscal establishment in our state give opportunity for anyone to open bank history in their Bankss. Minimal attending is given to the circulation of money in the history. Criminals can run someplace but animal trainer of the felons may be in someplace. Even in the Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle ‘s instance: it was revealed that the felon had another individuality card with a Tamil name which he had usage to open a bank history to ease his disbursals.
19. Our security forces ways of seeking people and oppugning people are non yet improved. It requires alteration with new engineering. Old seeking methods of people are non suit for the present demands. As an illustration: the Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle ‘s instance, the constabulary arrested a Tamil miss for oppugning about the animal trainer and the suicide bomber and she committed self-destruction by get downing a nitrile capsule whilst in detention. In this case, constabulary found that the capsule had been concealed inside her vagina to avoid sensing.
20. There were some unnatural instances where male parent raped his girl or gramps raped her guiltless granddaughter. Since society is so much cruel there should be effectual manner to place those wrongdoers taking at that place voluble drape like “ male parent or gramps ” .
Technology IN PRESENT FOR DETECTION OF CRIMES
21. Present engineering to observe offenses can be considered as a usher for Sri Lanka offense bar engineering. During last human-centered war period, the Terrorist Investigation Division ( TID ) and the CID of the Sri Lanka Police, were able to observe many sophisticated communicating equipment of the LTTE and have arrested many LTTE cells runing in Colombo with utilizing modern engineering. This paved the manner for Colombo to be comparatively free of incidents.
22. Any condemnable from halfway portion of the state may ravish an guiltless miss in south or north. He may get away without giving any grounds. But since DNA engineering is used it is easy to happen the suspect. But there is a job with the cost of DNA research.
23. To judge the clip of a slaying, researches are conducted on skulk of a human organic structure or else any other parts. It is sometimes assist to place felons.
24. As engineering continues to develop, the truth of information is increased. In August 2000 the truth of GPS signals was within 2 metres. We can utilize this engineering for offense bar.
25. Our preventative steps involve an addition in standard domestic intelligence. Understanding of terrorist maps increases the ability to forestall panic onslaughts efficaciously.
26. If fishy individuals ‘ any cell of organic structure excepting blood is remained as grounds, familial codification is to be tested. It may be his sound of hair, any little cell of the organic structure. In instance of a colza, felons can be detected with followers:
a. Trees and dirt of the topographic point where the colza was taken topographic point.
B. Some spots taken topographic point when seeking to get away.
c. Any strings of hair of the wrongdoer,
d. Sperm of the wrongdoer.
e. Suspected individual ‘s fabrics.
f. Any little hurts during the colza.
27. Observation of the Place of Crime. Following new engineering are used in a topographic point of offense.
a. Use camera for surveillance.
b. Storing information with a computing machine.
c. Photographing utilizing reasonable camera.
d. Storing of grounds with utilizing computing machine.
28. Touching Evidence. Touching grounds is really much of import in criminology. Basic consideration is paved for substance of physical constituents. Fingerprints are really much of import grounds. New engineering can be used for placing fingerprints, entering fingerprints, scanning the little grounds stuffs, make up one’s minding clip of a offense, where normal oculus can non place the little substance. Touching grounds are used for following Fieldss of offenses:
a. Vehicle accident
29. Weapons and Explosives Weapons and explosives are used for offenses. There are so many types of explosives which are in used. Explosives can be a one chemical or compound. It may be a solid or liquid. Now explosives sensors are used. Since the new mine sensors are most effectual they can be used for sensing intents.
30. With sing nature of the offenses, inclination of the felons, there is a higher demand to utilize the modern engineering. Following jobs are identified in order to utilize the engineering in cut downing offenses and keeping jurisprudence and order of the state. Those troubles are as follows:
a. Since a considerable clip Sri Lankan constabulary service has utilizing communications equipments to pass on with each constabulary station. But when we consider the security, velocity, efficiency it is excessively behind with the demands.
B. There is a vaccum of capable constabulary personals to be used in offense sensing intents and engineering handling.
c. Morden fire weaponries are used by felons
d. In competitory universe explosives are introduced with so many signifiers.
e. Research on DNA is really much expensive. But it will assist to place felons. Lack of research workers to make DNA trials is another job.
f. there is a deficiency of research lab installations with modern engineering to observe offenses.
g. Preventing offense is easy instead than seeking after committed a offense and it is salvaging voluble belongingss in the signifier of adult male power or stuff.
h. Drugs trafficking is a major issue.
I. There are some topographic points where offenses are reiterating. Police laterality of the country is non plenty to command the offenses. Sometimes there is a specific clip which offenses are reiterating.
J. As per the common pattern of jurisprudence of our state, which test a instance in a tribunal non suited for some instances. As an illustration a existent felon may be escape from the penalty if a endowment attorney negotiations on behalf of him. He has to pass a great trade of money to acquire advices and service of the attorney. And same mode an guiltless adult male may be convicted for a offense if he is non taking aid from a good bed.
k. Our state ‘s judiciary system is working good. But in condemnable instances pending on test instances are really much high since the condemnable instances are to be proved beyond the sensible uncertainty. It requires some alteration. In modern engineering computing machines can be feed with intelligence and our penal codification every bit good as other Torahs which help to take the determinations. Then the judgement could be taken without hold.
l. Normal inclination of an wrongdoer is to make the offense habitually. When we consider about the informations of a local constabulary station this is a common inclination. Normally enquiries are recorded in a book. For minor offenses are neglected for first or 2nd times. Then person may oblige to make the offenses. Because the constabularies have to seek in so many books some offender ‘s past behaviour may be hidden. If a constabulary station got a information beginning which can available instantly constabulary can travel for a survey of any wrongdoer ‘s history. As a consequence even a minor offenses are repeated, the wrongdoer is to be punished to avoid offenses. When we consider about few felons it is common truth that they have ab initio done little offenses and subsequently on offenses.
m. Vehicles are being used by so many types of people. Criminals are besides utilizing vehicles. Criminals may perpetrate a offense in a far off distance, and come back in few proceedingss utilizing vehicles. Then tracking the felons utilizing hunt Canis familiariss is much hard.
n. Emergency telephone Numberss which were published by the Department of Police are normally use by the general populace. That will assist Police personals to turn up the topographic point of offenses and take actions without hold. For illustration 119 and 118 Numberss are normally used. But most of times these Numberss are engaged with some conversations.
O. Sudden aggravations are doing so many offenses in our state. When we consider about offenses history of our state it is so much clear. We can utilize modern engineering to heighten the patient ability of such selected group of people with utilizing computing machine games.
p. Punishment may be helped to cut down offenses to some extent. But if we are traveling for a major decrease of the offenses in Sri Lanka following offenses bring forthing countries are to be addressed giving sensible solutions with utilizing modern engineering.
Q. In some occasions fingerprints are being used to place the felons. The fingerprint system had been used by prehistoric people.
31. There are Numberss of toxicants which are used in Sri Lanka for doing offenses in the signifier of slaying, perpetrating self-destruction, homicide, blameworthy homicides. There is a new inclination in Sri Lanka for abortions with utilizing illicit agencies. When in such a instance researches on the victim ‘s organic structure is to be carried out. New engineering is used for those research workers. There is a scarceness of research lab installations with modern engineering for these intents.
32. Considerable figure of ground is lending to increase offenses in Sri Lanka. Controling offenses is a demand of hr in the state. In the procedure of commanding the offenses, Sri Lanka may confront some barriers. Accommodating those barriers is required to cut down the offenses. Reducing offenses will assist to keep the peace and order of the state.
33 It is recommended that:
a. Every constabulary station is to be provided with LAN and WAN system to leave information rapidly.
B. In order to cut down pending probes of offense, constabulary personals should be provided developing on particular equipments which are used for offense sensing.
c. Selected constabulary personals should be provided with preparation on particular weaponries which little in size.
d. All constabulary personals to be trained to place assorted explosives. New equipment to place explosives is proposed to import.
e. Surveies on Deoxyribonucleic acid to expose offense can be spread outing under the counsel of the authorities of Sri Lanka.
f. In order to observe offenses there is a demand to heighten research lab installations.
g. Most of fiscal establishment, authorities money loaning establishments, and even some big graduated table concern topographic points are advised to suit camera and associate security systems with utilizing computing machines to place felons.
h. House can be secured with repairing little electronic qui vive equipment which is non expensive.
I. Vehicles can be fixed with particular remote reasonable qui vive system. Costss of this equipment are really less but must be produced in larger graduated table.
h. Media and other new proficient ways and agencies can be utilized to educate people. Even in movies may besides be subjected to give the message to general populace.
I. With good intelligence combine with engineering, will cut down drugs trafficking rate. On the other manus it will assist to minimise other offense refering to robbery.
J. New engineering to observe offenses with utilizing orbiter, radio detection and ranging system or any other engineering agencies of sensing methods.
k. National individuality card which we are utilizing can be produced by some organic structure. In order to heighten security system of national individuality card some magnetic sensitive individuality ( saloon coded ) card can be introduced. Though it is expensive at the get downing it will be reduced the big scale belongings amendss and the cost of the sensing of offenses.
l. New engineerings for sensing of communicating in the signifier of telephone, nomadic phone and cyberspace agencies of communicating to be introduced for offense sensing personals.
m. By utilizing engineering the sensing procedure to be accelerated to accommodate with future demands
n. We need new engineering every bit good as specialized cognition on computing machine and cyberspace.
O. Media got so many duties to bar of offenses. But some case media besides contribute to bring forth felons. Media in footings of authorities and private sector is to be used for forestalling offenses.