Chicken is the most common domesticated animate being. Besides being the most of import nutrient production animate being, poulets can besides function other intents, such as to supply company as pets. Chicken are the most abundant and widely distributed bird in the universe. Billions of birds are used in meat and egg production each twelvemonth. Across the Earth, the wellness of poulets contribute to the wealth of states. The poulet industry is really of import. In United Kingdom ( UK ) for illustration, chicken agriculture remains important to the rural economic system and it contributes significantly to the balance of trade. At any one clip, the UK is home to about 29 million egg-laying poulets and more than 100 million poulets bred for meat production. The United States is the universe ‘s largest manufacturer of poulet meat. Their expected 2010 production of poulet meat is 16.3 million ton.

Chickens are a major beginning of energy and protein for worlds worldwide. It provides 67.6 % of the day-to-day value for protein in 4 ounces. Chicken is besides a good beginning of Se which is a trace mineral. Selenium is an of import constituent of several major metabolic tracts, including thyroid endocrine metamorphosis, antioxidant defence systems, and immune map.

Chicken is a really good beginning of the cancer-protective vitamin, A nicotinic acid. Components of DNA require nicotinic acid. A lack of nicotinic acid, every bit good as other B-complex vitamins, has been straight linked to familial ( DNA ) harm. A research published in the August 2004 issue of the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry indicates regular ingestion of niacin-rich nutrients like poulet provides protection against Alzheimer ‘s disease and age-related cognitive diminution.

Diseases that chicken face and get the better ofing these diseases

Chickens suffer from a assortment of diseases including Newcastle disease, mareck ‘s disease and salmonella infections. Newcastle disease, which is an airborne virus, attacks internal variety meats and causes decease in poulets. It can pass over out the full flock in merely a few yearss. Mareck ‘s disease affects chickens through white blood cells and nowadayss itself as cancerous tumours. Deadly pathogens can besides harm poulets. These diseases can do great losingss for farms that are focused on poulet raising.

In twelvemonth 2000 a three twelvemonth programme was started to research the familial footing for unsusceptibility in poulets and to develop a database of look profiles for a big set of poulet cistrons. This undertaking is known as Chicken-Image ( Improvement of poulet Immunity and opposition to disease based on Analysis of Gene Expression ) . Through this undertaking, a scope of commercially valuable merchandises to supply the engineering for engendering immune poulets, could be produced.

Disinfectants have been used extensively in intensive domestic fowl operations to understate disease, better growing and provender use. However, disinfectants in carnal diets can do the development of immune strains of bugs. This could impact human wellness straight and transport into meat and bioproducts. Therefore, the European Union has moved towards a complete prohibition of in-feed disinfectants for these grounds. Research on options to the present in-feed disinfectants is being conducted world-wide. In all instances, it will be necessary to understate disease challenges, strengthen the bird ‘s natural defense mechanisms ( immune response ) and to optimize the diet to supply a balance of needed foods for the poulet ‘s altering demands. All of these may be influenced by utilizing provender additives.


A prebiotic is defined as “ a nondigestible nutrient ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively exciting the growing and/or activity of one or a limited figure of bacteriums in the colon ” ( Gibson.G.R, Roberfroid M.B,1995 ) . Alteration by prebiotics of the composing of the colonic microflora leads to the predomination of a few of the potentially health-promoting bacteriums, particularly, but non entirely, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria ( Gibson.G.R, Roberfroid M.B,1995 ) . Because of the ability of prebiotics to promote the growing of good bacteriums it could be used in the instance when there is a demand to better the intestine vegetation. The most common types of prebiotics available in addendums are fructooligosaccharides ( FOS ) , inulin and galactooligosaccharides.

Chicken Immune System

Antigens are microorganisms or toxins that can occupy the organic structure and cause diseases. The tegument provides a barrier to occupying bugs. It is by and large penetrable merely through cuts or bantam scratchs. The digestive and respiratory piece of lands, both portals of entry for a figure of bugs, besides have their ain degrees of protection. Microbes come ining the nose frequently cause the nasal surfaces to release more protective mucous secretion. The tummy contains a strong acid that destroys many pathogens that are swallowed with nutrient. Phagocytosis which is the engulfing and inactivating of antigens every bit good as lysis of foreign cells can be used to extinguish foreign beings.

There are many similarities every bit good as differences between the general immune mechanisms of mammals and poulets. Birds respond to antigenic stimulation by bring forthing antibodies every bit good as cellular unsusceptibility. There are three chief categories of antibodies in birds. They are IgM, IgG and IgA. Antibody diverseness is achieved by cistron transition. T cells are the chief effecter cells of cellular unsusceptibility. The avian T cells differentiate into two distinguishable tracts which are the alpha/beta and gamma/delta.

Avian T cell diverseness is likely generated through combinative and junctional mechanisms similar to the mechanisms that operate in mammalian T cell receptors. As in mammals, avian T cells engage in assistant and cytotoxic maps that are MHC restricted. The unconditioned effecter mechanisms include those mediated by natural slayer ( NK ) cells and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ( ADCC ) . Recently, cistrons of several avian cytokines have been cloned and expressed. A figure of of course happening viruses cause immunosuppression in poulets, hence, there is much involvement in understanding the mechanisms of immunosuppression and developing schemes to heighten immune reactivity in commercial domestic fowl.


The organic structure contains white blood cells which are made in the bone marrow. These white blood cells are called lymph cells. The function of lymph cells is to assist protect the organic structure from infection. The three different types of lymph cells are the B cells, T cells, and natural slayer cells. In poulets, lymph cells are produced in 2 lymphoid variety meats, the Thymus and the Bursa of Fabricus. Both B cells and T cells recognize specific antigen marks. B cells are found in the Bursa of Fabricus. They work chiefly by releasing antibodies into the organic structure ‘s fluids, or wits. They are responsible for the production of Igs and play a function in the humoral response. These antibodies will interact with go arounding antigens such as bacteriums and toxic molecules, but they will non be unable to perforate life cells. T cells are found in the Thymus. They interact straight with their marks, assailing organic structure cells that have been taken over by viruses.

Birds have merely one variable map cistron encoded in its germline Deoxyribonucleic acid. Therefore, the B cells would non be able to bring forth the different antibodies which would be needed to respond against specific diseases. This job could be solved by cistron transition. Gene transition is a procedure whereby the diverseness of the antibodies could be rearranged and further immunoglobulin diverseness could be provided with the aid of hypermutation.


Cytokines are proteins that play many functions in the immune system map. They are normally pleiotropic molecules with diverse and cell type specific activities. Their maps are mediated by adhering specific receptors. Cytokines have many activities including, modulating cell activation, haematopoiesis, programmed cell death, cell migration, and cell proliferation. Cytokines are involved in about all facets of both innate and adaptative immune responses. Our experiment is focused on 3 different cytokines. They are interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and interferon-I± . These cytokines are expressed in mammalian every bit good as avian species.

Interleukin-1 ( IL-1 ) consists of two proteins, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. These are the merchandises of distinguishable cistrons. Approximately 25 % amino acerb sequence individuality is shown by these proteins which recognize the same cell surface receptors. IL-1 is by and large produced in response to redness and nervous system stimulation. Due to stimuli produced by inflammatory agents, infections or microbic endotoxins, a huge addition in the production of IL-1 by macrophages and assorted other cells can be noticed. Osteoblasts, monocytes, macrophages, keratinocytes, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, thymic and salivary secretory organ epithelial tissue, Schwann cells, fibroblasts and glia ( oligodendroglia, astrocytes and microglia ) are cells known to bring forth IL-1.

Interleukin 6 ( IL-6 ) is a pleiotropic I±-helical cytokine. It plays of import functions in acute stage reactions, redness, haematopoiesis, bone metamorphosis, and malignant neoplastic disease patterned advance. IL-6 activity is indispensable for the passage from acute redness to either acquired unsusceptibility or chronic inflammatory disease. IL-6 is produced by macrophages and T cells. IL-6 can bring on pyrogens in musculus and fat tissues, hence doing the organic structure temperature to increase. They besides induce proinflammatory response by doing the distinction of B-cells into immunoglobins releasing cells.

Interferon-alpha ( IFN-alpha ) is produced by leucocytes. IFN-alpha has both anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities on mark cells. Protein kinase and oligoadenylate synthethase are produced when IFN-alpha is stimulated by a viral infection trigger.


Ginseng has been used as a medical specialty for over two thousand old ages. Today, about 6 million Americans use it on a regular basis. Asiatic ginseng is native to China and Korea and has been used in assorted systems of medical specialty for many centuries. Chinese ginseng is a cardinal herb in Chinese medical specialty. Chinese ginseng ‘s Latin name is Panax ginseng. It is a member of the Araliaceae household. The Panax household consists of at least nine species, including P. ginseng, Panax quinquefolium ( Xiyangshen, American ginseng ) , Panax notoginseng ( Sanqi ) and Panax japonicus ( Nipponese ginseng ) .

Ginseng modulates blood force per unit area, metamorphosis and immune maps. It has been known to hold improved the wellness of people retrieving from unwellness and hiking the immune system. Ginseng can besides increase staying power and better both mental and physical public presentation. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ( NCCAM ) has funded research which includes the herb ‘s possible function in handling insulin opposition, malignant neoplastic disease, and Alzheimer ‘s disease.

The root of Panax ginseng contains active chemical constituents called ginsenosides that are thought to be responsible for the herb ‘s medicative belongingss. The root is dried and used to do tablets or capsules, infusions, and teas, every bit good as picks or other readyings for external usage. Ginsenosides were isolated in 1963. Until so, the action mechanism of ginseng had non been known. Much attempt has since been focused on measuring the map and clarifying the molecular mechanism of each ginsenoside.


Ginsenosides are triterpene saponins. Most ginsenosides are composed of a dammarane skeleton. Which is a four-ring construction incorporating 17 Cs with assorted sugar medieties ( e.g. glucose, rhamnose, xylose and arabinose ) attached to the C-3 and C-20 places. Ginsenosides are named as ‘Rx ‘ . The ‘R ‘ bases for the root and the ‘x ‘ describes the chromatographic mutual opposition in an alphabetical order, for illustration, Ra is the least polar compound and Rb is more polar than Ra.

There are over 30 ginsenosides which have and identified. They are classified in two classs. The first class is the 20 ( S ) -protopanaxadiol ( PPD ) which contains Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rh2, Rs1. The 2nd class is the 20 ( S ) -protopanaxatriol ( PPT ) which contains Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rh1. A carboxyl group is present in the C-6 place of PPDs whereas it is absent in PPTs. Several rare ginsenosides, such as the ocotillol saponin F11 ( 24-R-pseudoginsenoside ) and the pentacyclic oleanane saponin Ro ( 3,28-O-bisdesmoside ) have besides been identified.

Different ginsenosides have different maps. Rg1 modulates humoral and cellular unsusceptibility. Rh2, Rb1, Rb2 and Rc provide anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells. Rh1, Rh2, Rh3, Rg3 induce tissue distinction and right adhesive cellular interactions. Rh enhances DNA-polymerase restorative activity which is of import for anti-mutagenity. Rb1, Rg1 and Rg3 suppress tumour angiogenesis. Rb1, Rb2, Re and Rg1 up-regulate activities of antioxidant enzymes. Rb1 prevents neural programmed cell death ( exciting Bcl-x ( L ) look and down-regulating caspase-3 degree. )

Several factors affect the quality and composing of ginsenosides in the ginseng workss. They are the species, age, portion of the works, cultivation method, reaping season every bit good as the saving method. For illustration, ginsenoside Rf is alone to Asiatic ginseng while F11 is found entirely in American ginseng. Therefore, the Rf/F11 ratio can be used as a phytochemical marker to separate American ginseng from Asiatic ginseng. The overall saponin content in ginseng is straight relative to its age. It reaches a peak degree at around 6 old ages of age.

Two normally used standardised infusions are G115 from P. ginseng ( Pharmaton SA, Switzerland ) and NAGE from P. quinquefolius ( Canadian Phytopharmaceuticals Corporation, Canada ) . Studies on these two ginseng infusions utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) found ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1 in both G115 and NAGE, and ginsenoside Rg2 in G115 merely. G115 has higher Rg1, but NAGE has higher in Rb1 and Re.


Gallus gallus cell line CRL-12357 was purchased from ATCC, cells were thawed for culturing and maintained.

Exposure of Gallus gallus cells line CRL-12357 to crude ginseng root and root infusions at different intervention of 0, 24, 48 hours severally.

Reaping of treated cells and the no infusion controls after each clip point 0, 24 and 48 hours.


Cell Pellet

Entire RNA Extraction

Kits: QIAGEN RNeasy Plus Mini Kit

( Catalogue no. 74134 )

complementary DNA synthesis utilizing Invitrogen First-strand synthesis kit.

Data analysis and reading of consequences.

3.1 Gallus gallus T-lymphocyte cell line ( ATCC CRL-12357 )

The chicken-spleen derived T-lymphocytes cell line ( ATCC CRL-12357 ) was purchased signifier ATCC ( USA ) . The cells were thawed and grown in RPMI-1640 complete medium ( HEPES Modified Sigma Catalogue no. R8005, USA ) which contains 2mM-Lglutamine, 10 millimeter HEPES, 4.5 g/L glucose, 1.5 g/L Na hydrogen carbonate, with 1 millimeters sodium pyruvate, 20 % ( v/v ) foetal calf serum and 1 % ( v/v ) penicillin-streptomycin-amphotericin.

3.2 Media readying

3.2.1 RPMI-1640 basal medium and 4x complete medium

Each bottle of powdery RPMI-1640 ( Sigma Catalogue no. R8005 ) was made into 1 liter of concluding medium. 3 bottles of powdery medium was dissolved in 2.4 liters of Milli-Q ( nano-pure ) H2O in a beaker. Original bottles were rinsed with a little sum of Milli-Q H2O to take hints of pulverization. A Magnetic-stirrer was used to blend the solution till the pulverization had wholly dissolved. Newly constituted medium had a pH of 7.0.

The solution was transferred carefully into a measurement cylinder and brought to the concluding volume of 3 liters with Milli-Q H2O and the medium was made unfertile by filtration through a 0.2i?­m polyethersulfone bottle-top membrane filter ( Nalgene, Catalogue no.595-4520 ) into labelled unfertile 500ml Duran-Schott Bottles.

Asepsis trials were conducted by aliquoting 2ml of the filtered solution from each bottle into a 15 milliliter extractor tubing and left for incubation at 37 degree Celsius. The medium in the tubings were checked for pH alteration and turbidness after 2 to 3 yearss. The bottles of filtered basal medium were stored at 4 degree Celsius until completion into 4x complete medium for usage.

3.3 Cell Culture

3.3.1 Cell Counting

Cell numbering was performed utilizing an improved Neubauer bright-line haemocytometer. The haemocytometer and cover-slip were washed with 70 % ( v/v ) ethyl alcohol and wiped with kim-wipes. The cover-slip was placed onto the haemocytometer and ready for cell burden. A unfertile 100i?­l aliquot of cell civilization was aseptically sampled into a 1.5ml micro-centrifuge tubing utilizing a P20 micropipette and the cell aliquot was re-suspended and a volume of 15i?­l cells was obtained for cell numeration. Next, 15i?­l of trypan blue dye solution was assorted with the cell aliquot obtained before lading onto the haemocytometer for cell numeration.

The haemocytometer was so mounted onto a light microscope at magnification of 10X and focused till its grid squares could be seen clearly. Feasible cells that do non absorb the trypan blue were viewed as bright unstained cells while dead cells were stained bluish. Feasible and dead cells were counted in the four corners 1 millimeters x 1 mm grid squares. Cells touching on the bordering ternary lines were merely counted for either the top or the left lines. Cells touching the underside and the right manus side lines were excluded. After numbering 4 squares, the entire figure of cells was averaged so multiplied by the dilution factor of 2 and 104 to obtain the cell concentration ( cells/ml ) .

Finally, the cell concentration was multiplied by the entire volume of cells in the flask.

3.3.2 Cell sub-culture

Harmonizing to ATCC Product Information Sheet for CRL-12357, the cell line was sub-cultured every 2 to 3 yearss. First, the flask incorporating the suspension civilization of T-lymphocytes was flushed exhaustively 3 times with exhausted medium utilizing a unfertile Pasteur pipette to take lightly adhering cells from the surface. Cell suspension was so carefully transferred into a unfertile 15ml or 50ml extractor tubing to pellet the cells at 1300rpm for 5 to 10 proceedingss to obtain the cell pellet. Next, 10ml of fresh complete medium was added to scatter the cell pellet and a unfertile aliquot was sampled for cell numeration. Cells were seeded at 2 ten 105cells/ml in complete medium into either T-25 or T-75 flasks, placed at 37 degree Celsius with 5 % CO2 with cap blowhole and sub-culture every 2 to 3 yearss.

3.3.3 Cell Cryopreservation

Cells from healthy turning civilizations were harvested as described earlier and stop dead at 1 ten 106cells/ml in stop deading medium into each cryovial. Optimised rate of freeze is achieved with the usage of the MrFrostyTM cell stop deading container. Thereafter, cryovials were stored in liquid N until usage.

3.3.4 Thawing of cells

Required figure of cryovials were thawed after remotion from liquid N storage and submerged partly into a H2O bath with agitating and every bit shortly as the last hint of ice had vanished, the cryovial was removed from the H2O bath and the contents were transferred into a extractor tubing incorporating 10ml of cold RPMI-1640 complete medium for centrifugation at 1300rpm for 5 proceedingss. The supernatant was decanted and the cell pellet was dispersed by tapping. The spread pellet was resuspended with 5 to 10ml of fresh medium and 100i?­l of cell suspension was sampled for a cell count. The cells were seeded at the needed denseness of 2 ten 105cells/ml in a entire volume of 10ml with fresh complete medium in a T-25 flask and incubate at 37 degree Celsius in a 5 % CO2 brooder.

3.4 Entire RNA extraction from CRL-12357

Cells were pelleted and extracted for entire RNA content utilizing QIAGEN RNeasy Plus Mini Kit ( Catalogue no. 74134 ) . Before start of experiment, micropipettes, microtube holder, bench top were disinfected with 70 % ( v/v ) ethyl alcohol followed by RNase Zap ( Ambion Catalogue no. AM9780 ) . The extractor tubing was flicked to loosen the cell pellet. The lysate from the cell pellet were homogenized utilizing the QIAshredder spin column ( QIAGEN Catalogue no. 79654 ) for 2 proceedingss at 14,000rpm. After homogenisation, the lysate was transferred to the gDNA eliminator spin column and centrifuged for 30 seconds at 13,000rpm, the gDNA spin column was discarded. Following 600i?­l of 70 % ( v/v ) ethyl alcohol to the same volume of the lysis buffer was added to the flow-through and assorted. The RNA adhering measure was carried out twice. A volume of 700i?­l sample was transferred to an RNeasy spin column provided in the kit and centrifuged for 15 seconds at 13,000 revolutions per minute. The flow-through was discarded and the column was capped back.

Washing measure was performed three times to rinse the RNeasy spin column membrane. First, 700i?­l of buffer RW1 was added to the column and centrifuged for 15 seconds at 13,000 revolutions per minute. The flow-through was discarded and the aggregation tubing was reused. Following 500i?­l of buffer RPE was added to the column and centrifuged for 2 proceedingss at 13,000rpm. After centrifugation, the column was capped into a new 2ml aggregation tubing and centrifuged at 13,000rpm for 15 seconds. The concluding lavation measure involved adding 500i?­l buffer RPE to the column and centrifuged for 2 proceedingss at 13,000rpm. After centrifugation, the column was capped into a new 2ml aggregation tubing and centrifuged at 14,000rpm for 1 minute. Last, elution of RNA was done by puting the RNeasy spin column in a new 1.5ml RNase free aggregation tubing. To guarantee high sum of RNA eluted, 50i?­l of RNase free H2O added straight to the spin column membrane and centrifuged for 1 minute at 13,000rpm to elute out the entire RNA. The RNA extracted was instantly put on ice and rapidly measured for the concentration and the pureness utilizing an Eppendorf spectrophotometer. RNA samples were stored at -70 degree Celsius instantly to cut down debasement and prepared for subsequent Reverse Transcription synthesis of first-strand complementary DNA.

3.5 Measurement of Total RNA concentration and Purity in CRL-12357

Measurement of RNA concentration and pureness utilizing Nano-drop machine. The concentration reading were read in ng/ml and the optical density reading ( A260/A280 ) were besides used as the pot for the pureness.

3.6 First-Strand complementary DNA synthesis

Reverse Transcription reaction constituent on one sample

Volume ( i?­l )

1. RNA Template


2. 2.5mM dNTPs Mix


3. random primers 3i?­g/i?­l


4. Oligo ( dT ) primer


5. 0.1M dTT


6. 5X First-strand buffer


7. SuperScript Reverse RNA polymerase




In each well of the PCR-strip, 3i?­l of the Supermix A was pipetted. Templates were added at volumes of 10.5ml into each well and pulse spun before running in the thermic cycler at 65 degree Celsius for 5 proceedingss. After which, the strip was so rapidly chilled on ice for about 1 proceedingss and pulse spun once more to roll up any sample droplets on the side of the reaction tubing. In each well of the PCR strip, 6.5ml of the Supermix B pipetted into the PCR tubing was pulse spun before running in the thermic cycler at 42 degree Celsius for 50 proceedingss. Followed by 70 degree Celsius for 15 proceedingss and eventually keep at eternity at 4 degree Celsius. The strip was so taken out and pulse spun to roll up any sample droplets on the side of the reaction tubing. The complementary DNA was stored at 20 degree Celsius until ready for elaboration in RT-PCR.

3.7 Relative quantification Real-Time PCR

RNA concentrations measured were used for the direct appraisal of complementary DNA concentration presuming a one to one ratio transition of messenger RNA was reversed transcribed to cDNA during the rearward written text PCR.

3.7.1 RQ RT-PCR experiment

Using ABI Fast 7500 Real-Time PCR system, the experiments were carried out with each sample in triplicates. complementary DNA samples acquired from the rearward written text of messenger RNA were diluted to concentrations of 30 ng/i?­l utilizing 1i?­l of complementary DNA templet nuclease-free H2O. Forward and contrary primers for Beta-actin, IL-1i?? , IL-6 and IFN-i??iˆ were diluted from the stock concentration of 100i?­M to 100nM. A Supermix incorporating 10i?­l of Fast SYBR Green Master Mix, 0.2i?­l frontward primer ( 10i?­M ) , 0.2i?­l contrary primer ( 10i?­M ) and 8.6i?­l nuclease free H2O was made up each for Beta-actin, IL-1i?? , IL-6 and IFN-i??iˆ primers severally.

A volume of 19i?­l of the Supermix was pipetted carefully into each sample good. When the tally had completed, cistron look consequences were analyzed and saved.


Consequences of cell count for Exposure Assay 2 and RNA isolation of 24 hours samples.


Average figure of cells = 32 / 4 = 8

Cell concentration = 8 ten 104 ten 2 = 160000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 160000 cells/ml x 25ml = 4000000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells for RNA isolation = 4 ten 106 cells / 4000000 cells = 1ml


Average figure of cells = 40 / 4 = 10

Cell concentration = 10 ten 104 ten 2 = 2000000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 2000000 cells/ml x 25ml = 5000000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells for RNA isolation = 4 ten 106 cells / 5000000 cells = 0.8ml


Average figure of cells = 112 / 4 = 28

Cell concentration = 28 ten 104 ten 2 = 560000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 560000 cells/ml x 25ml = 14000000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells for RNA isolation = 4 ten 106 cells / 14000000 cells

= 0.286ml


Average figure of cells = 95 / 4 = 23.75

Cell concentration = 23.75 ten 104 ten 2 = 475000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 475000 cells/ml x 25ml = 11875000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells for RNA isolation = 4 ten 106 cells / 11875000 cells

= 0.337ml


Average figure of cells = 26 / 4 = 6

Cell concentration = 6 ten 104 ten 2 = 130000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 130000 cells/ml x 25ml = 3250000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 325000 cells = 1.23ml


Average figure of cells = 23 / 4 = 5.75

Cell concentration = 5.75 ten 104 ten 2 = 115000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 115000 cells/ml x 25ml = 2875000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 2875000 cells = 1.39ml

RNA Quantification Results for 0 hours sample utilizing Nanodrop

A 260/280

A 260/230









































Consequences of cell count for Exposure Assay 2 – 48 hours samples:


Average figure of cells = 328 / 4 = 82

Cell concentration = 82 ten 104 ten 2 = 1640000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 1640000 cells/ml x 25ml = 41000000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 41000000 cells = 0.980ml


Average figure of cells = 287 / 4 = 71.75

Cell concentration = 71.75 ten 104 ten 2 = 1435000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 1435000 cells/ml x 25ml = 35875000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 35875000 cells = 0.111ml


Average figure of cells = 90 / 4 = 22.5

Cell concentration = 22.5 ten 104 ten 2 = 450000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 450000 cells/ml x 25ml = 11250000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 11250000 cells = 0.356ml


Average figure of cells = 90 / 4 = 22.5

Cell concentration = 22.5 ten 104 ten 2 = 450000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 450000 cells/ml x 25ml = 11250000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 11250000 cells = 0.356ml


Average figure of cells = 135 / 4 = 33.75

Cell concentration = 33.75 ten 104 ten 2 = 675000 cells/ml

Entire Cell Number = 675000 cells/ml x 25ml = 16875000 cells

Therefore, to achieve 4 ten 106 cells = 4 ten 106 cells / 16875000 cells = 0.237ml

Consequences for Exposure Assay 2 – First-Strand complementary DNA synthesis

Consequences were non computed every bit yet as gDNA eliminator was unavailable for the 24 hours and 48 hours sample. Therefore during the isolation of RNA for 24 hours and 48 hours for exposure 2, the measure to extinguish the gDNA was skipped. With gDNA content along side with RNA, complementary DNA synthesis is ceased till stock of gDNA eliminator comes.

Consequences for Exposure Assay 2 – RQ RT-PCR experiment

Consequences need to wait boulder clay after first-strand complementary DNA synthesis is done and comparative quantification of complementary DNA is done utilizing ABI Fast 7500 Real-Time PCR system.


Chapter 6: Mentions

Abbas, A.K. and Litchman, A.H. , 2009. Basic Immunology: Function and Disorders of the Immune System. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Alam, R. and Gorska, M. , 2003. 2. Lymphocyes. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111 ( 2 ) : 476-485

J.A. Patterson, K.M. Burkholder 2007 Application of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Poultry Production [ online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 9 November 2010 ]

Kgsmith. 2005 The Avian Immune System. [ on-line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 11 November 2010 ]

Kaiser, P. , Poh, T.Y. , Rothwell, L. , Avery, S. , Balu, S. , Pathania, U.S. , Hughes, S. , Goodchild, M. , Morrell, S. , Watson, M. , Bumstead, N. , Kaufman, J. and Young, J.R. , 2005. A Genomic Analysis of Chicken Cytokines and Chemokines. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, 25 ( 8 ) : 467-484.

M E Rose. 1979. The immune system in birds. [ on-line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ? page=2 [ Accessed 11 November 2010 ]

Ritchison. G. 2001. Avian Biology. [ on-line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 9 November 2010 ]

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