Boko Haram is a fundamentalist Islamic religious order which late engaged in several terrorist activities in Nigeria. Its insurgency has led to the violent death of over 700 people in the past two old ages. Although the religious order ‘s Centre of operation was in the northern portion of Nigeria, bulk of the victims were Southerners occupant in the north, peculiarly from the cultural nationalities of south-eastern extraction. From all indicants, the authorities and security bureaus appeared overwhelmed or incapable of efficaciously procuring the lives and belongingss of Nigerians from the radical Islamic group. This survey investigated public perceptual experience of the function of authorities in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. A sample size of 114 respondents were drawn from Niger and Anambra States, and administered with a questionnaire. Niger State was indiscriminately selected from the 12 provinces in the North, which is the hot bed of Boko Haram, while Anambra State was selected from the 5 South-eastern provinces where most of the victims of Boko Haram mayhem originated from. Similarly 10 respondents who were non amongst those administered the questionnaire in the two provinces were selected and interviewed. In add-on, 4 security functionaries in Niger and Anambra States were purposively selected and interviewed to confirm the questionnaire informations. The findings indicated that authorities security information assemblage web was really hapless, and that Boko Haram religious order had more effectual security intelligence web than the authorities security bureaus. Other implicit in factors was hapless administration, public disenchantment/distrust of the authorities security bureaus ( peculiarly the constabulary ) , and deficiency of sustainable socio-economic development in Nigeria. To be able to counter terrorist web activities, the authorities needs restructure and beef up its security and intelligence assemblage web, restore public trust by covering with the underlying widespread discontent.
Cardinal words: Boko Haram, Terrorism, security intelligence web, Religion, good administration, public trust, sustainable development.
Nigeria is the most populated Black Country in the universe with an estimated 150 million people. The military had ruled the state for about 30 old ages out of her 52 old ages of her being since independency from Britain in 1960. When she returned to democratic regulation on May 29, 1999, it was hoped that democratic dividends that will vouch peace, human security, and human development would be ushered in the state. However, harmonizing to Iduh ( 2011:121 ) ,
aˆ¦the state remains handicapped by political malpractice, deep economic contradictions, societal inequality and a considerable potency for force due to the politicization of individuality characterized by spiritual, cultural and communal struggles, insecurity, organized offense and human rights misdemeanors among others.
Between 1999 boulder clay day of the month, Nigeria experienced critical events that tended to sabotage her coexistence. First was the debut of Sharia Law ( Islamic, civil and condemnable codification ) in 1999, which was met with aggressive opposition that caused the spiritual crises of February 2000. Before so, was the Maitatsine rebellion in 1980. The Maitatsine rebellion was the first effort at enforcing a spiritual political orientation on a secular, independent state that marked the beginning of fierce struggles and crises in Nigeria ( Adesofi, 2010 ) . Maitatsine rebellion and slaughter was ignited by a violent confrontation between the authorization and the Al-Masifu religious order led by Alhaji Muhammadu Marwa Maitatsine. The religious order denounced pretentious show of wealth, such as having houses, and anti-orthodox Islamic imposts etc. Following the Maitatsine crises, or interspersing them were several other crises.
Specifically, the Maitatsine rebellion to which those of Boko Haram comparison in footings of doctrine and aims, organisational planning, armed opposition and modus operandi have by and large been explained by a combination of factors such as economic disruption, want, and income inequalities every bit good as poorness aided by local catastrophes like drouth etc ( Adesoji, 2010 ) . In other words, many of the accounts offered for the eruption of the Maitatsine rebellion in the eightiess are relevant to the Boko Haram terrorist act. Indeed the socio-economic conditions that sustained the Maitatsine rebellion in 1980 are relevant to the Boko Haram state of affairs today. In some instances, the state of affairs had got worse. There was mass poorness, inequality in educational and employment chances, ignorance due to limited educational chances, turning unemployment, and authorities corruptness, including the abuse of resources by which the people were repulsed. These jobs swelled the ground forces of vulnerable people whose disenchantment and poverty made them easy quarry.
However, in malice of the force that trailed the debut of Islamic law in Nigeria every bit good as the many other struggles that have prevailed, the authorities had seemed to miss the capacity to cover with the state of affairs. In the words of Iduh ( 2011:121 ) ;
The fact that it was hard for the federal authorities to do dictum against it ( Islamic law ) made the people in the provinces where it is practiced unequal before the jurisprudence, which many argued to be menace to peace and signifies that more struggles will take topographic point in the hereafter, non minding that single security starts from the regulation of jurisprudence and the ability of the province to protect her citizens.
In the same vena, the 2005 World Report of the Human Rights Watch stated that “ undertaking impunity remains a cardinal challenge for Nigerian authorities ” .
Boko Haram is a fundamentalist Islamic religious order based in Northern Nigeria that seeks to set up the secular system of authorities and set up Islamic law jurisprudence in the state. The term “ Boko Haram ” comes from the Hausa word “ Boko ” intending “ Western instruction ” and the Arabic word “ Haram ” figuratively intending “ Sin ” ( literally, “ out ” ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //imaguzuwadyndus.w retrieved April 20, 2012 ) . Thus the term Boko Haram means that western instruction is a wickedness and western civilisation is out. The group earned this name due to its resistance to anything western, which it sees as perverting Muslims. The group started in 1995, led by one Lawal Abubakar and subsequently handed over to Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf on 30th of July, 2009 ; the religious order had recruited about 500,000 members. Their locations are in Kanama, Yobe province, Northern Nigeria, and their base is called Afghanistan. Their major onslaughts and operations are in assorted parts of Northern provinces like Bauchi, Yobe, Kano, Kaduna, Niger, Sokoto, and particularly in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno province. Boko Haram is seen in some quarters as Nigerian Taliban because they operate and have all the characteristics of Al-Queada-they mark security outfits e.g. constabulary Stationss and they are against the province involvement. They maim, kill destroy and invade churches ( Iduh, 2011 ) .
Harmonizing to Ajaero ( 2012 ) , Boko Haram insurgence has led to the senseless violent death of 100s of guiltless people. The religious order ‘s self-destruction bombers have unleashed mayhem on citizens, foremost in bombing the Police Force Headquarters, and UN edifice both in Abuja. There have besides been several other coordinated onslaughts and bombardments in the Northern provinces of Borno, Yobe, Gombe, Bauchi, Niger, Adamawa, Kano, Kaduna and Taraba. Boko Haram has killed over 700 individuals in the past two old ages in Nigeria ( Ajaero, 2012 ) .
It is non easy to understand what Boko Haram is contending for. Their marks excessively do non give hint as to what its doctrine is because its onslaughts are assorted. Today it hits a church ; tomorrow it is a public edifice. The following mark could be either a motor park or even a media house. So, it is hard to state why it is throwing bombs all over the state. In the sentiment of Ogienagbon ( 2012 ) , “ what Boko Haram is making is a declaration of war by other agencies against the state. It is non making what it is making because ‘western instruction is a sin’aˆ¦ There could be many accounts about the motivations behind Boko Haram ‘s grim war against Nigeria ” . However, Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria seems to reenforce efforts by Islamic conservativists at enforcing Islamic spiritual political orientation on the Nigerian secular province. Adesoji, ( 2010:95 ) farther maintained that “ whereas the spiritual sensitiveness of Nigerian provided fertile evidences for the genteelness of Boko Haram religious order, the religious order ‘s flowering is watered by the predominating socio-economic disruption in the Nigerian society, the coming of party political relations ( and associated despair of politicians for political power ) ” . Similarly for Akam ( 2012 ) , the rise of the religious order is rooted in the corruptness of Northern political oligarch that excluded monolithic northern young persons from entree to the benefits of modernism and disposing them favorably towards agitating mayhem. “ Look closely, at the members of the religious order and you could see natural choler and deprived, unemployed and uneducated immature work forces who their lone mercantile establishment is force ” ( Akam, 2012:56 ) .
Soon, Nigerian ‘s now live in fright without cognizing when a Boko Haram suicide bomber would come their manner. The easiness with which the self-destruction bombers carry out these dastardly Acts of the Apostless show that Nigerian authorities may non be making adequate security wise to halt them in their onslaughts. From all indicants, security bureaus do non look to be on top of the state of affairs. They do non look to possess needed solutions to battle the Boko Haram terrorist act beyond the legion disapprobations of the dastardly Acts of the Apostless ; and the now humdrum media advertorials which say that:
Security bureaus would wish to reassure Nigerians of our corporate resoluteness to stomp out panic from our state. We are poised to convey to an terminal, the activities of a few unscrupulous elements and to besides warn that the long arm of the jurisprudence will ever catch up with those who perpetrate immoralities. We hereby crave the maximal support and cooperation of all Nigerians as we strive to free our society of panic. We are non terrorists ; we are Nigerians ( Onwuamaeze, 2011:11 ) .
In the first topographic point, security bureaus tend non to be proactive of the bombardments by Boko Haram despite the fact that the religious order frequently sends warning signals in progress. The consequence is that security forces frequently arrive at the scene of bombardment after it has happened. Therefore, they are ne’er found in the right topographic points at the right clip. Second, it does look that security forces may non hold the capacity and ability to wholly battle Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria ( Onwuamaeze, 2011 ) . This is non heartwarming given the tremendous budgetary allotment for security in the 2012 financial twelvemonth in Nigeria. In 2012, a immense amount of N921, 91 billion about ( $ 755 billion ) , or 19.4 per centum of the entire federal budget was for security ( The Nation, May 3, 2012 ) . With the increased national security budget many Nigerians would be tempted to compare the monolithic allotment of resources to vouch for the needful peace of head in the state. Unfortunately, despite taking the greatest ball of the national resources, national security has ne’er been more perilous in Nigeria. It is against the background of the foregoing that this survey is positioned to analyze public perceptual experience of the function of authorities in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. To steer the survey are the undermentioned inquiries:
What is the public perceptual experience of the function of security bureaus in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria?
How effectual are security bureaus in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria?
What are the jobs confronting security bureaus in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria?
How can security bureaus combat Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria?
Harmonizing to Madunagu ( 2011 ) the word terrorist act can be defined in the undermentioned ways: ( 1 ) , “ Terrorism is improper force or any other improper harmful act committed ( or threatened ) against civilians by groups or individuals for political or other ideological ends ” , ( 2 ) , “ Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated force perpetrated against non-combatant marks by sub national groups or clandestine agents, normally intended to act upon an audience ” ( 3 ) , “ International terrorist act is terrorist act affecting citizens or the district of more than one state ; a province patron of terrorist act is a province that repeatedly provides support for Acts of the Apostless of international terrorist act ” . Furthermore, UN ( 2005 ) cited in Madunagu ( 2011:10 ) defined terrorist act as “ an action intended to do decease or serious bodily injury to civilians or non-combatants with the intent of intimidating a population or obliging a authorities or an international organisation to make or abstain from making any act. ” Madunagu ( 2011 ) .
Some other bookmans view terrorist act from different positions. Harmonizing to Griffitha and O’Callaghan ( 2004 ) cited in Mudasiru, ( 2011:95 ) “ terrorist act is an unpredictable and premeditated usage of force or the menace of force to accomplish identifiable ends. It includes onslaughts against tourers, embassy staff, military forces, assistance workers, and employers of transnational corporations ( MNCC ) . It can be used by persons and groups against authoritiess, and it can be used and sponsored by authoritiess against authoritiess, and it can be used and sponsored by authoritiess against peculiar groups ” ( Mudasiru, 2011 ) .
D. w. griffiths and O’callaghan ( 2004 ) identified four territory sorts of terrorist act as follows: ( a ) The multinational offense, ( B ) State-sponsored terrorist act, chauvinistic terrorist act, and ( degree Celsius ) The ideological terrorist act.
Harmonizing to Mudasiru ( 2011 ) , the multinational terrorist act involves the usage of force by drug trusts to protect their private involvements by assailing authoritiess and persons who attempt to cut down their activity and influence. The Italian Mafia is a good illustration in this instance. State-sponsored terrorist act is a method of warfare whereby a province uses agents or alternates to make political and economic stableness in another state. States besides sponsor terrorist act by giving logical support, money, arms and allied equipment, preparation, and safe transition to terrorists. Examples include the activities of anti-colonial motions, groups wishing to splinter from a peculiar province as witnessed in the Basque motion in Spain, Sikh nationalists in India, Biafran authorities in Nigeria and so on. Ideological terrorist act is that in which terrorists use panic either to alter a given domestic policy or to overrun a peculiar authorities. It is therefore pertinent to detect that terrorist act is far from being a mindless, irrational force. Usually acts of terrorist act are good planned and carried out with military preciseness.
Spencer ( 2006 ) cited in Mudasiru ( 2011 ) opined that terrorist act is hard to gestate. For him, one of the jobs of specifying terrorist act is the ability to separate terrorist act from the other related constructs like guerrilla warfare, offense or huffy consecutive slayers and a host of others. There is even a pessimistic impression by Laqueur ( 1977 ) that a comprehensive definition of terrorist act does non be for now.
However, Schmid and Jongmad ‘s ( 1988 ) definition of terrorist act may do in explicating the activities of terrorists. Harmonizing to Schmidt and Jongman ( 1988 ) .
Terrorism is an anxiousness inspired method of repeated violent action, employed by ( Semi ) clandestine persons, groups, or province histrions, for idiosyncratic, condemnable, or political grounds, whereby in contrast to assassination-direct marks of force are non the chief marks. The immediate human victims of force are by and large chosen indiscriminately ( marks of chance ) or selectivity ( representative or symbolic marks ) from a mark population and service as message generators. Menaces and force – based communicating processes between terrorists ( organisation ) . ( imperiled ) victims, and the chief marks are used to pull strings the chief mark ( audiences ) , turning it into a mark of demands, or a mark of attending, depending on whether bullying, coercion, or propaganda is chiefly songlit ( sited in Mudasiru, 2011:96-97 ) .
It is pertinent to observe that there is an of import correlativity between methods used by terrorists and their ultimate ends. The more dramatic the method, the more attending the act itself will have. Terrorist onslaughts on civilian are chiefly intended to be symbolic. Similarly a terrorist bombs a edifice non so much because he or she seeks to kill randomly but because the onslaught will be published across the Earth and will pull inadvertently attending to the cause. In this sense, the mass media can go an ally of the terrorists. The newsworthiness of terrorist onslaughts has led some bookmans to reason that there should be a complete blackout on such Acts of the Apostless ( Mudasiru, 2011 ) .
Madunagu ( 2011 ) argued that was a demand for a distinction of the constructs “ Terrorism in Nigeria ” and “ Nigerian Terrorism ” for a better apprehension of the insurgences in Nigeria. For him, terrorist act in Nigeria suggests a foreign terrorist is distinguishable from Nigerian terrorist act which is place grown Nigerian terrorist act. The two are different preparations which, when inserted in the modern-day Nigerian state of affairs, produce wholly two different positions on how to undertake it ( Madunagu, 2011 ) .It can hence be said that Nigerian terrorist act are those terrorist act whose seeds were sown in Nigeria, germinated and is now booming in Nigeria. Concentrating on Nigerian terrorist act Madunagu ( 2011 ) stated that five signifiers stand out: Niger Delta insurgence ; the Boko Haram insurgence ; the Middle Belt ( Jos ) violent deaths ; Kidnaping for ransom ; and Armed Robbery. Each of these dimensions of Nigerian terrorist act has been modified or “ enriched ” , or even transformed, by developments in Nigerian political relations and political economic system. But their roots and their flights are clear ( Madunagu, 2011 ) .
Apparently terrorist act in Nigeria is spanned by the contradictory kineticss of the civil order in Nigeria. In peculiar, with the ill-famed corruptness among the political elite, the state ‘s huge wealth has failed to better the lives of the citizens. This coupled with stolen political authorization, has led to a turning disenchantment peculiarly among idle immature work forces ( Adesoji, 2010 ) .
Both ancient and modern philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Mill and Bentham have argued that the province ( authorities ) is non merely the organ where the people can realize themselves, but, more significantly, the terminal of such province is the maximization of their public assistance ( Akubor, 2011 ) . Anything that derogates from the security and felicity that the province can vouch, in the prescription of lock, calls for rebellion against the crowned head ( Aminu and Yaqub 2002 cited in Akubor, 2011 ) .
Scholars every bit good as Conflict Analysts such as Ilo ( 2008 ) are of the position that the spiritual, cultural, and regional tenseness in the state can merely be understood in the visible radiation of the conditions created by debts, economic crisis and structural accommodation in the state. Ilo ( 2008 ) argued that poorness is the greatest beginning of civil discord in Nigeria. He opined that when people are hungry and lack the basic necessities of life, they are easy prone to force. On the other manus, Adekunle ( 2007 ) posited that the debut of stiff economic steps like Austerity Measures during civil regulation in the 1980 ‘s and structural Adjustment Programme ( SAP ) during the ministry government have tended to be accompanied by increasing incidents of violent protests, crises and struggles, work stoppage, presentations, armed putschs and counter-coup efforts.
Interestingly, overzealous rebellions in Nigeria have largely originated from the North, which arguably is the poorest portion of the state ( Makinde, 2009:6 ) . Indeed, out of the 178 clangs that have taken topographic point in Northern Nigeria between 1980 and 2004, 104 were related to faith ( Sani, 2007 ) .
Furthermore, Adesoji ( 2011 ) contended that the function that partizan political relations and political backing drama in the nutriment of Boko Haram religious order is obvious. In a similar vena, Nigeria ‘s former National Security Adviser ( NSA ) in a paper delivered at the South-South Economic acme held in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria on 27th April, 2012, observed that Boko Haram members were acquiring better trained, better equipped and better trained, better equipped and better funded, while Nigeria ‘s security bureaus have no reply to the inquiry posed by them. He traced the ceaseless bombardments, self-destruction onslaughts and gaol interruptions harrying largely the Northern portion of Nigeria and sensitive national landmarks establishments to the ‘politics of exclusion ” of the governing party in the state. He therefore tried to input political undertone to the intractable job of insecurity that has been made more blatant by the activities of Boko Haram ( The Nation, May 3, 2012 ) . Given the degree of annoyance among different subdivisions of the population, it is no surprise that racial manifestations and fundamentalist doctrines like Boko Haram developed, thrive and wrecks havoc at will in Nigeria. ( The Nation, May 3, 2012 ) .
In his positions, Obadofin ( 2012 ) opined that terrorist act is non merely attached to faith, but frequently it has political undertone. He farther argued that the chief factor that triggers terrorist act is hatred. For 1000s of old ages, the Arabians have been the enemy of the Jews, and the same hatred, from the Arabs is laso translated to the United States ( Obadofin, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Obadofin ( 2012:35 ) ,
aˆ¦ . to an Islamic extremist, particularly those trained as self-destruction bombers, this is an epoch of jehad. They have been brainwashed into a belief that if they sacrifice life to kill ‘unbelievers ‘ , they would be rewarded with the cloud nine of Eden and a hareem of virgins both juicy and good at bed.
It can be observed that more blood has been shed in the name of faith than any other cause ; and terrorists ( most of which fell under the screen of faith ) have committed many lifelessly onslaughts since 2001. The instance of Nigeria is non an exclusion but the job is multifaceted, it cuts across faith, political relations and even economic issues. Socio-economic jobs, ethno-religions sentiments, educational radioactive dust ( illiteracy ) . Unemployment, political geocentricism etc have become platforms to establish onslaughts on guiltless citizen by armed robbers and kidnapers in the yesteryear. Boko Haram is a merchandise of national failure like others ( Obadofin, 2012 ) .
In the same vena, Kukah ( 2003 ) is in silent understanding that the Boko Haram terrorist act is embedded in the character and construction of the Nigerian state province. Harmonizing to him, with its neo-colonial heritage, Nigeria imposed a new perceptual experience and definition of inter-ethnic dealingss. The competition for power as a agency of resource allotments has meant that the cultural elites within the Nigerian province have had to fall back on what can, and will, heighten their chances of capturing and retaining power for their immediate environmental constituency. In Northern Nigeria, the hegemony of the opinion category has been prefixed on the veneer of the Islamic faith, since this was the footing for the constitution of the Caliphate. This means that claiming the fright of God being a Bawan Allah ( God ‘s retainer ) , trust in Ikon Allah ( the will of God ) , are requirements and major facets of political and economic endurance within this governing category.
Although there is no conclusive nexus of Boko Haram with Jihadist motions outside Nigeria, the modus operandi of the religious order, fashioned after the Taliban in Afghanistan, has generated some wonders. Given its big followers and the claim that it has suit members to Afghanistan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Iraq, Mauritania and Algeria for preparation, it could be that Boko Haram modeled itself after the Taliban merely to admit its beginning of inspiration ( Adesoji, 2010 ) .
This survey was located in Niger and Anambra States of Nigeria. Niger State was indiscriminately selected from the 12 Northern States which is the hot bed of Boko Haram, while Anambra State was selected from the 5 Southeastern provinces where most of the victims of Boko Haram mayhem originated from. The sample size for the survey was 114 made up 14 respondents for in-depth interview and 100 for questionnaire informations. The questionnaire was administered every bit ie.50 in each of the two provinces. The respondents were purposively selected on the footing of handiness sampling technique. For the in-depth interview, 10 respondents who were non amongst those administered the questionnaire in the two provinces were selected and interviewed. In add-on, 4 security functionaries were besides purposively selected in the two provinces. The structured questionnaire focused on public perceptual experience of the function of security bureaus in battling Boko Haram, the effectivity every bit good as the jobs confronting security bureaus in covering with Boko Haram in Nigeria. The questionnaire informations were presented in tabular arraies and analyzed with descriptive statistics ( simple per centums ) while informations from the in-depth interviews were analyzed based on the narrations of the respondents on the substantial issues of the survey.
Analysis of the socio-demographic features of the respondent ‘s shows that bulk of the respondents ( 54.11 ) are males and ( 38.9 % ) females. A good figure of the respondents ( 43.2 % ) are married and are reasonably educated. The respondents are about 62 per centum who have completed third instruction. Over 96.4 per centum are Christians. They are largely engaged in while Cola occupations with about 49.5 per centum employed in the civil service. The mean one-year income is NGN100,000 ( about $ 1724 )
Public Perception of the Role of Security Agencies in Combating Boko Haram
The study indicated over 60 % of the respondents stated that security bureaus are non playing positive functions in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. Further, the respondents were asked how effectual security bureaus in battling Boko Haram were. The findings are in table I.
Table 1: How effectual are security bureaus in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria?
Table 1 shows that bulk of the respondents ( 40 % ) perceive security bureaus as uneffective in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria.
These findings are supported by the in-depth interview informations. One comment made by a 38 twelvemonth old civil retainer in Niger State elucidates this point. In his words:
This is so a seeking period for Nigeria. And Nigerians are in understanding that something must be done desperately to salvage the state. Security, jurisprudence and order are the major preoccupation of any authorities. Once a authorities gets this precedence right, it has made the really first right measure. Turning insecurity on the rearward side is the first mark of a neglecting province. Traveling by the recent developments in our state ( Nigeria ) this appears to be the way we may necessarily head and as ever, the effects are direr. aˆ¦Today, Nigeria faces her greatest security challenge ever.. Apart from the threat of armed robbers, aˆ¦we besides worry about the menace of Boko Haram and its attendant indirect harm on Nigeria and her people. With the reaching of Boko Haram, Nigeria has efficaciously joined those stray states that carry the revolting ticket of being referred to as terrorist provinces.
A 28 twelvemonth old young person in Niger State shared similar positions of the failure of the Nigerian authorities in battling the Boko Haram terrorist act, when he said:
As it were, the authorities in power appears to hold no practical solution to procrastinate the terrorist Acts of the Apostless of the diabolic Boko Haram beyond disapprobation aˆ¦ Notwithstanding the presence of security bureaus and the Joint Task Force, Boko Haram has established itself as a deathly tool aˆ¦ Several apprehensions have been made, some of the histrions have besides been in detention, yet no individual has been brought to book for the unfair violent deaths by Boko Haram terrorist.
Problems Confronting Security Agencies in Combating Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria
The findings sing the jobs confronting security bureaus in battling Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria from the study is shown in table 2.
Table 2: The Problems facing Security Agencies in Combating Boko Haram Terrorism.
Security bureaus are ill trained.
Security bureaus are non decently trained
Security bureaus are non proactive
Corruptness and bad administration
Government lacks the political will to cover with Boko Haram
In table 2 bulks of the respondents ( 40 % ) identified corruptness and bad administration as outstanding factors impacting the combating of Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. Data from the in-depth interview support these findings.
When asked the job confronting security bureaus in covering with Boko Haram, a 45 twelvemonth instructor from Anambra who is a relation of some of the victims of Boko Haram killed in Adamawa State stated:
In my position, the ground forces, the constabulary and the remainder are in Boko Haram and authorities is non sincere.
The issue of authorities falseness and deficiency of political will in covering with Boko Haram was re- echoed by a 30 twelvemonth old unemployed alumnus. In his words:
Government knows what to make but they are non willing so as non to step on the toes of some sacred cattles in Nigeria. In add-on, security bureaus lack basic accomplishment, preparation and equipments to enable them battle the forces of Boko Haram.
On the other side of the security bureaus, some of the respondent interviewed stated that the jobs of Boko Haram terrorist act are instead really complex. One striking point was made by a senior constabulary officer interviewed in Niger State. He said that:
aˆ¦ The state of affairss that created the jobs of Boko Haram are non merely about faith, politicsaˆ¦ I think it is a combination of everything ; aˆ¦ except you address all those things comprehensively, it would non work. It is non plenty to direct soldiers and constabularies work forces to halt the situationaˆ¦ You must look at what structures you need to set in topographic point to turn to the job holistically.
On the other manus, a retired public retainer in Anambra State is of the position that the inability of the security bureaus in battling Boko Haram is due to corruptness. In his positions:
aˆ¦ The religious order is said to be angry that its leader, Mohammed Yusuf was killed in constabulary survey. It aimed to assail people in uniformaˆ¦ What this points to is the fact that the constabulary in Nigeria have been lawless. If they have taken Yusuf to number, the religious order would non hold been driven to the wallaˆ¦ Extrajudicial violent deaths spiced with corruptness and its offspring – poorness, hungeraˆ¦ hold given rise to the immense caldron in Nigeria today.
How to Combat Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria
The major scheme of battling Boko Haram in Nigeria is enthronement of good administration. The study indicated that 45 per centum of the respondents are of this sentiment. This is closely followed 30 per centum of the respondents who stated that security bureaus should be trained in intelligence assemblage and equipped with modern engineering and substructure. Datas from the in-depth interview corroborated these findings. In the positions of 60 twelvemonth old retired security secret agent in Niger province.
aˆ¦ To be blunt, surveillance, intelligence assemblage and a proactive temperament should be combined by security bureaus to reasonably predict and tackle offense.
aˆ¦Again, the authorities should sporadically reexamine security disposal, procedure with a position to guaranting that speedy responses are maintained at all times. There is besides the fact that authorities should non compromise in implementing the jurisprudence. Government should take a firm stand all the clip on conveying the full weight of the jurisprudence on whosoever infringes on itaˆ¦ Above all, those in authorization should demo leading by illustration by fiting words by action.
Discussion of Findingss
One of the findings of this survey is that the government/security bureaus are non playing equal positive functions in battling the Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. This is in line with the general impression in literature. Harmonizing to the 2005 World Report of the Human Rights Watch “ undertaking dross remains a cardinal challenge for authorities in Nigeria ” . Many Acts of the Apostless of dross such as high profile violent deaths, snatch, surety pickings, human rights misdemeanors and suicide bombardments perpetrated by Boko Haram abound in Nigeria which the authorities has non been able to undertake. Similarly, Iduh ( 2011 ) opined that deciding high profile blackwashs and condemnable force by the Nigerian constabulary is rather unimpressive because the constabulary lacks the will, capacity and competency to look into offense, apprehend perpetrators, and guarantee justness which finally erodes the public assurance of safety. Apparently the government/security bureaus do non look to be on top of the Boko Haram state of affairs in Nigeria. It is evident that security forces in Nigeria are non able to battle Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. They are non proactive and are ne’er found in the right topographic points at the right clip. Security forces frequently arrive at the scene of the bombardment after it has happened ( Onwuamaeze,2011 ) ..
Furthermore, it was found in this survey that the government/security bureaus inability to cover with Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria is as a consequence of the socio-economic and political challenges in the state. Specifically, the survey identified bad administration and corruptness as the cardinal factors act uponing Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria. These findings are supported by similar accounts in literature. Harmonizing to Adesoji ( 2010 ) , Boko Haram is sustained by socio-economic conditions in Nigeria such as mass poorness, inequality in instruction and instruction ; and corruptness in authorities. Corruptness is a major curse which earnestly affects socio-economic development in Nigeria. The worst is official corruptness. For illustration, it is clear that because of corruptness, a really senior constabularies officer was alleged to hold masterminded the flight of one of the Boko Haram leaders who was in constabulary detention. It was expected that the authorities would hold used that instance to demo her contempt for corruptness. On the contrary, nil was done to the mistaking police officer except that he was retired from the constabulary an action perceived below outlooks by the public.. With respects to bad administration, the authorities has shown that it lacks the will to cover with Boko Haram terrorist act and many other issues imploring for good administration in the state For case, while the president has continually stated that some patrons of Boko Haram had infiltrated his cabinet he has non been able to place them. It would look that the authorities knows the patrons of Boko Haram terrorists in Nigeria but has been able to convey the full weight of the jurisprudence on them likely because these people are sacred cattles whose toes can non be stepped on by the authorities in Nigeria. Again, Kukah 2003 stated that Boko Haram has political undertone. For him, Boko Haram terrorist act is embedded in the character and construction of the Nigerian state province. In his words:
aˆ¦ with its neo-colonial heritage, Nigeria imposed a new perceptual experience and definition of inter-ethnic dealingss. The competition for power as a agency of resource allotment has meant that cultural elites within the Nigerian province have had to fall back on what can, and will, heighten their chances of capturing and retaining power for their immediate environmental constituency.
There is no addition stating the fact that there is a systemic failure in Nigeria. Thus, the incrimination is forthrightly laid on the door stairss of the authorities for the Boko Haram onslaught.
As a manner frontward, this survey indicated good administration as a really of import scheme for battling Boko Haram terrorist act every bit good as in deciding other impunities and human rights maltreatments in the state. Harmonizing to Madunagu 2011:
aˆ¦ You can non efficaciously react to Nigerian terrorist act with a individual arm, nevertheless good designed. aˆ¦ I would propose that since the current Nigerian province enters any strict definition of Nigerian terrorist act, the current socio-political dispensation can at most merely cheque and manage Nigerian terrorist act. Merely a new societal order, a popular democratic and emancipator societal order, can make the conditions for an accelerated “ shriveling off ” of Nigerian terrorist act ( Madunagu, 2011:11 ) .
In the interim nevertheless, to pull off and look into Boko Haram, the Nigerian security bureaus should hold proactive temperament pulling well from intelligence assemblage, surveillance and ability to reasonably predict possible offense with close perfect truth. Again, the authorities should sporadically reexamine security disposal procedure with a position to guaranting that short responses are maintained at all times. There is besides the factor of engineering. Nigeria ‘s security web should be driven by first-class modern engineering.
It is besides of import that authorities should non compromise in implementing the jurisprudence. Government should take a firm stand all the clip on conveying the full weight of the jurisprudence on those who infringe on it. However, by far the most of import scheme a leading by illustration and strength of character of those in authorization by fiting words by action.
Nigeria ‘s cancerous complaint cuts across board: terrorist act, political banditry, ethno-religious struggles, a clueless, corrupt and ineffective executive, an unserious and every bit ineffective legislative assembly, a hapless bench notoriously acclaimed for abortion of justness, mass poorness, and vexed people that endures the hurting and acrimonious gustatory sensation of associated adversity formula continually clashed out by the authorities. It is non surprising given the degrees of annoyance among the different subdivisions of the population that extremist manifestation and fundamentalist doctrines like Boko Haram develop, thrive and wreak mayhem at will in the state. Despite her attempts, the authorities has non succeeded in conveying Boko Haram terrorist act in Nigeria to an terminal because the implicit in root cause of the job are non being addressed. The manner forward is a new emancipatory societal order through popular democracy that will show in equity, answerability and good administration in Nigeria.