The flying design of a Micro Air Vehicle ( MAV ) is to be designed to help in the appraisal of temblor harm. The MAV is required merely to be powered by an electrical motor, restricting flight clip and endurance/range, and must be able to wing to the scene rapidly and expeditiously. Therefore, the analysis of the wing construction is double: 1 ) holding an efficient wing design for sail ( faster ) flight and 2 ) holding an effectual loiter ( slower flight ) wing design. The chief methodological analysis in guaranting the optimum wing construction would be to plan two airfoils with an actuator which will morph the wing dependent on the different demands.


The package bundle DESFOIL, on the University of Sheffield intranet, is considered a friendlier user interface for the original XFOIL bundle created by MIT Professor Mark Drela to help in the apprehension of low velocity airfoil flow solution. However, since XFOIL contains a less than friendly interface, DESFOIL, a MATLAB based package, creates a friendlier user interface, enabling airfoil analysis to be more easy understood.

NACA Aerofoils

Since NACA airfoils will be the prevailing pick in achieving the airfoils for our MAV, this subdivision will concentrate on supplying a dislocation on the cardinal facets of such airfoils.

The 4 figures associated with the NACA airfoil provide information as to the physical construction of the airfoil. The four figures are broken up as such

The first figure offers information about the maximal camber as a per centum of the chord length.

The 2nd figure provides information as to the place of this maximal camber as a map of the overall chord length ( in 10s of units )

The concluding two figures provide information on the maximal thickness of the airfoil as a per centum of the overall chord length, as a per centum.

Therefore, it can easy be seen that the chord length is polar in finding the right NACA airfoils.

Centre of Pressure and Aerodynamic Centre

Other of import airfoil features are the Centre of force per unit area and aerodynamic Centre. If we consider them separately, we can achieve a clearer image of their importance.

Get downing with the Centre of force per unit area, it is known that the placement of this point changes with lift, viz. it moves towards the taking border as lift additions. However, utilizing this same theory, it can be understood that this Centre of force per unit area can travel outside of the airfoil geometry. More specifically, at low degrees of lift coevals, the force per unit area Centre can be behind the airfoil.

Such a parametric quantity is of import to understand since it allows for paring of the possible aircraft on which the airfoil will be mounted. The Centre of force per unit area can be calculated utilizing concretion provided a force per unit area distribution is understood. Since we are covering with a distribution, the length of the chord becomes progressively of import and it is normal to speak about the force per unit area as a map of chord length, by and large get downing with the taking border.

The aerodynamic Centre contains a more direct nexus with the stableness of the aircraft/aerofoil. The aerodynamic Centre is the point on the airfoil where the pitching minute of the airfoil is independant of the angle of incidence. Understanding of this point is important due to its big part to the reconciliation and hence stableness of the aerofoil/ aircraft. Since the bulk of airfoils which will be considered within this diary are cambered, it is interesting to observe that the aerodynamic Centre is about situated at a point ? of the chord length.


When sing retarding force, the chief idea is of a retarding force to gesture in a certain way. The relationship is simple ; the greater the retarding force ( retarding ) force, the greater electric resistance on gesture. From an airfoil design point of position, we wish for such force to be every bit minimum as possible since a lower retarding force allows faster velocities ( longer endurance and/ or scope ) and possibly more efficient fuel ingestion.

To understand more about retarding force, we need to understand more about the different constituents of the force. If we can understand the force ‘s chief component parts, this may assist us take down the drag our airfoil experiences.

The retarding force force can be broken up into several different constituents. Some of these are

Parasitic retarding force

Lift induced retarding force

As we will subsequently cipher, the lift our airfoil green goodss will change depending upon which flight attitude government we are in. i.e. loiter or sail, and therefore the retarding force each government experiences will change. Since this is of import in understanding how the airfoil will respond to regime alterations, the lift induced retarding force will be looked at more closely within this analysis.

The construct of parasitic retarding force is broken into many different parts. Such constitutional parts include skin clash and force per unit area retarding force. The construct of skin clash comes approximately due to the interaction of fluid molecules reaching the surface of the airfoil, conveying local wall shear stresses into consideration. It can therefore be seen that the faster the gesture of molecules past the airfoil, the larger wall shear emphasis. The skin clash coefficient portions an reverse parabolic relationship with the velocity of the aircraft

The part from force per unit area retarding force will be considered in footings of flow separation points further into this study. Such retarding force will take precedency in the analysis of retarding force within this study since it provides a more strict word picture of the retarding force at different angles of onslaught and different DESFOIL truth parametric quantities ( panel figure ) . Since DESFOIL offers merely this type of retarding force, it will be assumed that this force per unit area retarding force is the overall coefficient of retarding force, when discoursing analysis of graphical informations.

Furthermore, since we will subsequently see the 3D effects of the airfoil, it is of import to observe that there will be different retarding force factors which will increase the sum of retarding force experienced by the airfoil.

A major signifier of retarding force which the airfoil will see while in flight is the whirl retarding force, more specifically the retarding force due to the mismatch of force per unit area along the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. More specifically, this retarding force arises due to an overspill of high force per unit area on the lower surface of the airfoil to the upper surface, which is abundant in low force per unit area countries. Therefore as the airfoil moves through the fluid, in our instance air, this overspill will attest itself into tip whirl, increasing the retarding force experience by the airfoil.

Therefore, although merely retarding force will be termed in this diary, there may be separate implicit in factors involved.

3D and 2D Calculations

Although DESFOIL is merely applicable to 2D airfoils, accommodations can be made such that the consequences from DESFOIL can be used within 3D state of affairss. Since we are planing an existent airfoil, such considerations need to be taken into history, and are during the ulterior parts of this diary.

The importance of utilizing such a plan lays in its simulation of the aeromechanicss the airfoil experiences. Therefore, utilizing such a plan allows the possibility to find what coefficient of lift ( or, 2D and 3D analysis severally ) and coefficients of retarding force, inferior ‘d ‘ , or ‘D ‘ consequently, are needed for optimum flight. As we will find in this study, optimum coefficients will be calculated and a wing construction designed consequently.

The undermentioned reading is an analysis of the package bundle DESFOIL on the suitableness of difference NACA 4 figure airfoils on an MAV of certain design specifications. These include

Cruise Speed, = 15

Loiter Speed, = 8

Flying Area, S = 0.13

( We will presume a rectangular planform for our airfoil. Furthermore, we will presume the airfoil as the chief signifier of lift, i.e. neglecting fuselage, tail plane or rudder lift coevals )

Flying Characteristic/ Structure

Lift is defined as the aerodynamic force that a surface produces in the presence of a perpendicular speed vector. Since lift is defined as a force, , we can presume that lift is some map of the denseness of the medium it is produced within, , the size of the object bring forthing such a force, , and the before mentioned speed, Therefore,

( 1 )

Where ten, Y and omega are unknown parametric quantities specifying the relationship outlined in the equation. Through dimensional analysis we can infer the values of such terra incognitas.

( 2 )

( 3 )

In footings of lift forces, the invariable of proportionality is termed the coefficient of lift, deducing the lift equation

( 4 )

( It is besides possible to see a more strict analysis of the coefficient of lift taking into history symmetrical and cambered airfoils, which output and severally. However, such equations merely apply to thin airfoils and since the thicknesses of the airfoils are unknown in this assignment, the generic expression will be used )

Similarly, derivation of the retarding force forces can give an tantamount drag version of equation ( 4 ) .

( 5 )

To infer our optimum lift coefficient, we will presume the lift generated will be the weight of the aircraft, a sensible premise when sing directly and degree ( sail ) flight. However, such an premise is non rather sensible when sing aircraft loitering places, where the lift may be significantly smaller than the weight or significantly higher. However, presuming them equal, would intend both state of affairss are experienced the same sum whilst in lounging flight. This premise can be considered sensible. Therefore, the lift coefficients can be calculated for the several flight conditions

( 6 )

Equation ( 6 ) yields a cruise coefficient of lift of 0.285, while similar analysis for loiter conditions outputs a lift coefficient, of 1. Since we are more concerned with the wing aeromechanicss, we will see the induced retarding force, , whereby,

( 7 )

Where vitamin E is the Oswald efficiency of the airfoil, a correctional factor added since the wing form differs from the egg-shaped wing used for the derivation, and A is the aspect ratio, calculated by the length to width ratio. To choose the best facet ratio for our airfoil, the induced retarding force fluctuation with aspect ratio alterations is shown in Figure 1.

It can easy been seen from Figure 1 that an aspect ratio of 5 would be acceptable since there is negligible fluctuation in footings of the two dimensionless constructs. However, if we consider this in footings of the existent MAV, an aspect ratio of 5 would give a span of 0.8m and a chord length of 0.16m. Obviously, while this is the longest and thinnest allowed in this peculiar probe, possible structural jobs may happen. However, if we consider the capablenesss of the aircraft, there are advantages excessively.

As Figure 1 has shown the induced retarding force in flight would be decreased, enabling better endurance and lone wolf scope. The structural instability could be overcome by careful choice of stuffs and designing of the construction. Therefore, although jobs may originate from such an aspect ratio, these jobs can be overcome and do hold their ain advantages.

Such informations allows computation of sail and loiter Reynolds figure and Mach figure to be calculated.

Figure 1: Induced Drag and Aspect Ratio relationship

( 8 )

( 9 )

Similarly, and.


Since this package is the primary tool in finding which airfoil will be used and its aerodynamic features known, it would be wise to research the capablenesss of the package and which system ( panel figure ) to utilize to guarantee the consequences obtained are of relevant truth. Another of import facet of utilizing DESFOIL is the clip taken for consequences to be determined. This will be analysed following.

If we consider the effects of panel figure on the lift, retarding force and force per unit area distribution severally, we can clearly see a relationship shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4.

Sing an angle of incidence of 10 grades, it is apparent to see that the most accurate consequences come about with the higher panel Numberss. Since the maximal panel figure within DESFOIL is 280, it would look this would be the optimum pick. However, upon closer analysis, it is the clip taken for such accurate consequences to come back from the package, which is of greater importance. For illustration, a panel figure of 280 will supply the most accurate reply, but besides take the longest to infer.

Therefore, if we consider the ( negligible ) fluctuation of values, we can infer that a panel figure of 180 is significantly lower, therefore, leting quicker consequences, but still retains a high degree of truth. For illustration, for the lift coefficient, 180 outputs 1.0012, while 280 outputs 1.0028. Thus the truth difference is negligible.

Figure 2: Variation of Lift with different panel figure on NACA0012 airfoil

Figure 3: Variation of Drag with panel figure on NACA0012 airfoil

When analyzing the force per unit area distribution, fewer panel Numberss were considered, since the graphical representation would hold become badly difficult to distinguish between the different graphs.

On the other manus, the before mentioned negligible differences is possibly clearer in Figure 3. With the panel figure at 280, the force per unit area distribution is most smooth, leting finer inside informations to be seen, which would otherwise be lost in lower panel Numberss. Therefore, a panel figure of 180, the lowest without losing important truth, is optimum.

Figure 4: Variation of Pressure Distribution with panel figure on NACA0012 airfoil

Reynolds/ Mach figure

So far, we have considered merely the sail facet of the MAV. Since the aircraft will see lounging phases besides, analysis must be considered into different Reynolds and Mach Numberss. Both of these are necessary in understanding the aeromechanicss of the airfoil since they both alter the manner in which the airfoil will respond to airflow. For illustration, consideration of passage points, the oncoming of turbulent flow, boundary bed thickness and laminar flow needs to be understood to optimize the airfoil design. Therefore, alterations in the behavior of the aerofoil/ air flow must be modelled and simulated within DESFOIL. For farther apprehension of such phenomenon, XFOIL will be used to pictorially demo the effects of Reynolds figure and Mach figure on boundary bed, amongst other sets of information.

More specifically, larger Reynolds and Mach Numberss will be taken into consideration to visualize squeezability effects. To detect such consequences, i.e. how alterations in denseness with respects to the force per unit area distribution, comparings will be made to demo how the squeezability effects ( big Reynolds/ Mach figure values ) alter the characteristics/ public presentation of the airfoil.

An angle of onslaught of 10 grades was considered when set abouting the calculations in all illustrations.

Incompressibility/ Compressibility Effectss

Figures 5 and 6 visually show the fluctuation of the boundary bed with a high Reynolds and Mach figure.

If we consider Figure 5, we can see the specific values of coefficients of lift, retarding force and pitching minute at the angle of onslaught mentioned earlier. Another helpful manner shown within Figure 5 is the description of the alteration in boundary bed over the length of the chord of the airfoil. This pictoral position shows the general formation of disruptive flow from laminal flow. As will be seen subsequently in the study, there is a relationship between the boundary bed thickness and the Reynolds figure. This relationship is of import to observe since a dilutant laminal boundary bed ensures lower retarding force. Again, this construct will be farther investigated subsequently.

Figure 5: XFOIL graph demoing force per unit area distribution along airfoil

Figure 6: XFOIL graph demoing fluctuation of other airfoil features

Reynolds Number

Mach Number



















Figure 7: How lift and retarding force vary with different Reynolds and Mach Numberss

From Figure 7, we can see the direct impact the differing Reynolds Numberss and Mach Numberss have on the coevals of lift and retarding force. Quite clearly, as the Reynolds/ Mach figure lessenings, so does the coefficient of lift, and therefore lift generated. Besides of important importance is the addition in retarding force with diminishing Reynolds/Mach figure. Due to these fluctuations, the lift to drag ratio besides decreases.

However, it is of import to observe that the consequences are non-linear. This non-linearity can be explained from the passage from incompressible flow to flux whose denseness changes with regard to the force per unit area distribution. Therefore, such features can non be extrapolated or calculated ; they must be by experimentation defined, or computationally simulated, since consideration of squeezability effects adds complexness to computations.

Boundary Layer Analysis

Although there is small difference between the values of lift coefficients ( in the first two illustrations ) , there seems to be a drastic difference between the lift: drag ratios. Since the coefficients of lift are similar, changing by less than a magnitude of value, the lone possible alteration must come from the retarding force experienced on the airfoil.

Experimental informations, handling the airfoil as a level home base, shows that as the Reynolds figure additions, the boundary bed thickness lessenings, shown in Equation ( 10 ) .

( 10 )

Therefore, a lessening in the Reynolds figure causes a larger boundary bed around the airfoil, which in bend causes a greater perturbation to the free watercourse air. This consequences in larger sums of free watercourse air going portion of the boundary bed, lending to the retarding force experienced by the airfoil.

Since the boundary bed can non manage a big inauspicious force per unit area gradient without separation, the higher values of Reynolds figure cause separation earlier, even though they have thinner, boundary beds. This is due to greater inauspicious force per unit area gradients which are responsible for the larger values of lift coefficients attained. The detached flow causes larger sums of retarding force, which is evidently unwanted, since the flow is no longer uniform along the chord. Therefore, since the thickness of the boundary bed is restricted, so is the coevals of lift. Therefore, the lift: retarding force ratio decreases as retarding force will increase upon separation.

The retarding force experienced at higher Reynolds Numberss is still well smaller than the retarding force experienced at lower Reynolds Numberss due to the thickness of the boundary bed. Although separation of the flow is a factor with respects to drag, the boundary bed thickness, as seen in Figure 7 utilizing Equation ( 10 ) , is a larger factor.

Since this separation point ( passage from laminar to turbulent flow ) is an country of involvement with respects to the sum of retarding force experienced by the airfoil, Figure 8 shows the motion of such a point with respects to the Reynolds figure.

Figure 8: Passage point. 1 ) Re=1000000, M=0.4 2 ) Re=169412, M=0.04 3 ) Re=90353, M=0.024

At this point it is of import to observe that the DESFOIL parametric quantities were changed to guarantee a wholly accurate consequence from the simulation. To guarantee the truth was maximised, the passage ‘detection ‘ was 100 % the length of the chord, and non merely the default 20 % . This allowed DESFOIL to look throughout the whole length of the chord for the transition/ separation point as opposed to the default 20 % .

As we can see, for the same angle of onslaught, the higher Reynolds/ Mach Numberss cause the separation point to be significantly closer to the taking border. Similar XFOIL graphs were constructed as that in Figure 6 for the other Reynolds/ Mach Numberss. From Figure 6, we can see that at an angle of onslaught of 0 grades, there is a separation point at 0.637, i.e. 63 % off from the taking border as a map of the chord length. When the Reynolds figure is 172000, this separation point is 91 % as a map of the chord length, while the loiter Reynolds figure remains laminal at 0 grades angle of onslaught.


If we consider other three dimensional geometries with regard to the retarding force each green goodss, we can understand why an airfoil is an optimum form in footings of cut downing retarding force.

Figure 9: Drag values for assorted 3D geometries

If we consider streamlining any given form, we can perchance cut down the sum of retarding force experienced, as shown in Figure 9, by an order of magnitude. For illustration, if we consider the domain, hemisphere and teardrop forms, although all have the same frontal geometry, it is the streamlining of the teardrop which contributes most to a important cut down in retarding force, due to the drawn-out fond regard of the air flow. Since the air flow after the sphere/hemisphere is all of a sudden separated ( due to the non gradual geometry behind the form ) , there is a important sum of retarding force experienced.

This is why Figure 5 depicts such a drawn-out fond regard of the air flow, merely going separated towards the draging border of airfoil.

To further reenforce the advantageous effects of streamlining, Figure 10 shows the geometrical differences which can be obtained with intelligent streamlining.

Figure 10: Two different geometries with the same aerodynamic retarding force force

Lower Aerofoil Surface

Another of import characteristic found from graphs similar to Calculate 5 high spots the relationship between the angle of onslaught, Reynolds/ Mach figure and flow over the lower wing subdivision. It was found that at lower Reynolds Numberss, the flow is comparatively laminal across the length of the chord length. This makes sense at high angles of onslaught since the bottom of the airfoil has a larger wetted country.

Possible farther probe and research may lie in finding the flow over the lower surface of the airfoil in negative angles of onslaught. Possibly such an probe will assist understand the landing/ falling subdivision of a flight way. It may be interesting to larn whether separation points play such a major function on the lower surface as they do on the upper surface, in footings of lift and retarding force. Such insight can supply insight into painting a complete image of the air flow environing a wing.

Furthermore, since a NACA0012 airfoil was considered giving all the consequences mentioned antecedently, alterations in air flow with changing NACA airfoils could assist find a more complex relationship. For illustration, as thickness, camber and camber place alteration, how does the passage point vary on the bottom of the airfoil?

Such fluctuations are made within the following subdivision with respects to the overall lift and retarding force. However force per unit area fluctuations could be conducted in a similar manner.

Planing utilizing DESFOIL

Since DESFOIL allows the user to plan, trial and measure their ain chosen design ( one of the many grounds it was chosen for project of this peculiar probe ) , it is of import to understand how the different parametric quantities affect the airfoil features. From this, we can infer what the optimum airfoil for our application could be. Furthermore, it allows for support of aerodynamic theory into the reaction of air flow over altering geometries of airfoils. This could be seen as a measuring of DESFOIL ‘s truth in its simulations. If its simulation consequences were to vary from known aeromechanicss, so the package ‘s cogency would be questionable. Throughout the analysis, hence, the aerodynamic theory will be called upon to explicate the consequences given from DESFOIL.

Since the package allows for three different design characteristics, it was deemed necessary, to derive a full apprehension, to set and analyze one parametric quantity at a clip and remark on the consequences obtained. Since different values of lift were optimum for the different phases within our flight way, both the sail and loiter conditions were looked at.

From the templet airfoil NACA0012, the thickness was the first parametric quantity to be changed. Figures 11 and 12 below diagrammatically shows the fluctuation in lift and retarding force over the

four different airfoils thickness ‘s chosen.

Cruise Conditionss

First, the sail conditions will be investigated.

Figure 11: Lift fluctuation with different NACA aerofoils thicknesses

Figure 12: Drag fluctuation with varying thicknesses

As we can see from the figures above, the thickness of the airfoil plays an of import function in finding such features as stall angle and maximal coefficient of lift. If we consider both graphs at the same time, we can infer the thicker the airfoil, the greater the values of lift can be obtained. This is shown with the addition in coefficient of lift values from 12 % thickness to 15-21 % thickness. This is down to the curvature of the airfoil being the chief signifier of lift coevals, i.e. the more curving ( thicker in this case since camber place is changeless ) the airfoil, the larger sums of lift generated, within bounds. Furthermore, it is of import to observe that the dilutant airfoil has besides stalled significantly harder than the thicker aerofoils. Since stalling is unwanted, possibly thicker airfoils would be best for usage in the chosen airfoil.

Concentrating on the graphs from a drag point of few, we can once more see that dilutant airfoils are unwanted due to the retarding force they produce/ experience. The crisp rise in retarding force experienced by the dilutant NACA0012 airfoil is complimentary of the stall it experienced at an angle of onslaught of 13.

Furthermore, it is of import to observe that there are little fluctuations in the little angle of onslaught part with regard to raise and negligible difference in the corresponding drag subdivision.

Since a unequivocal relationship was deduced from the thickness probe, it was sensible to go on the designing experiments. Next, the camber thickness was investigated.

Figure 13: Lift fluctuation with angle of onslaught with different camber thicknesses

Figure 14: Drag fluctuation with angle of onslaught with different camber thicknesses

From the above figures, certain relationships can be deduced between the camber thickness and the consequence such parametric quantities have on the lift and retarding force experienced on the airfoil.

First, allow ‘s see the inauspicious effects on the lift and retarding force, shown here by the NACA-2012, whereby the ‘-2 ‘ denotes a negative camber. From Figure 13, we can see a significantly lower lift attained flight with an earlier stall, which compliments Figure 14, whereby the retarding force significantly increases due to the separated flow ensuing from the stall. For the other three airfoils shown, the aerodynamic retarding force force experienced by each has negligible difference, since all follow the same form. The differences can more evidently be seen through analysis of Figure 13. Here, we can see the larger the camber, the greater values of lift can be obtained. However, it is of import to observe that merely the NACA4012 airfoil does non see a stall. On the other manus, the other two positive airfoils, while although sing a stall, do non procrastinate highly harshly, and so a stall of this sort, while although non optimum, can be considered negligible in footings of lift generated.

Finally, the camber place was investigated.

Figure 15: Lift fluctuation with angle of onslaught under different camber places

Figure 16: Drag fluctuation with angle of onslaught under different camber places

As we can see from the above two figures, the consequence of camber place is non every bit drastic as the other old analysed parametric quantities. From Figure 15, we can see the highest lift is attained by the NACA4212 airfoil, although all the airfoils have the same similar low angle of onslaught lift coevals. It is merely towards angles of onslaught greater than 7 where there is greatest divergence. On the other manus, it can besides be seen that the NACA4212 airfoil, while giving the highest lift value, besides stalls. As mentioned before, this is unwanted. From a retarding force position, the NACA4212 airfoil performs best towards larger angles of onslaught nevertheless performs worst at low angles of onslaught. Depending on where the greatest accent demands to be placed upon the sail airfoil conditions, this may or may non be an of import factor.

Chosen Cruise Aerofoil

Since we have analysed the effects of the three different parametric quantities within DESFOIL, we can now measure what lift and drag features we want from our chosen airfoil. Since the existent airfoil will be 3D, we need to take into consideration 3D effects. For this case, we are traveling to presume the 3D coefficient of lift is 90 % of the 2D coefficient of lift, viz. ,

( 11 )

Therefore, we can cipher a coefficient of lift of 0.3167 to be found utilizing DESFOIL. Taking what was found from the above probe, assorted NACA airfoils were tested. The concluding airfoil chosen was the NACA2615 airfoil for grounds clearly shown utilizing Figure 17.

Figure 17: NACA2615 airfoil features

From this figure, we can see the optimum design features we want from our sail airfoil. These features include a significantly low retarding force, as compared to the lift generated, which can be seen as a direct consequence of no stall being present. Furthermore, if we consider the lift we wanted to bring forth, viz. 0.3167, we can see this airfoil manages to achieve such lift at a low angle of onslaught, something we want from our airfoil since the quicker the optimum lift can be generated, the quicker the airfoil will get down acting to optimize its public presentation. Since this optimum lift is generated at an angle between 1 and 2, the lift: retarding force ratio was calculated for these two angles. They are 17 and 39 severally. These high values show the positive public presentation of our airfoil in the sail status.

Loiter Condition

As we can see from the old subdivision, a elaborate probe and analysis was undertaken to set up the best NACA airfoil for our sail intents. If we now go on to see the loiter status, there are certain parametric quantities which need to be considered, viz. the 2D lift we wish to take for, at the lowest angle of onslaught, to happen the optimum airfoil.

As shown in the old subdivision, the thickness, camber and camber place were all varied separately and the ensuing consequence on the lift and retarding force analysed. Using Equation 11, we can cipher the needed lift ( needed to be found in DESFOIL ) as 1.11.

First, the thickness was adjusted. It was found, merely like the sail status probe, that an addition in thickness resulted in higher degrees of lift being attained. However it was besides found that the airfoils under loiter conditions tend to procrastinate, irrespective of thickness. However, the greater the thickness the higher angle of stall. Since all airfoils tested stalled, the retarding force associated with each was declarative of this phenomenon. It is besides of import to observe that the airfoils tested were the NACA0010, NACA0012, NACA0018 and NACA0021.

Sing the place of maximal camber next, it was found that the NACA4212 airfoil stalled significantly earlier than the NACA4012, NACA4412, and NACA4612 airfoils. Therefore, this airfoil experienced the greatest stall overall. The other three airfoils managed to achieve high degrees of lift, merely somewhat changing in the angle of onslaught associated with obtaining such lift. This difference will turn out to be of import when discoursing the optimum loiter airfoil. Finally, the retarding force associated with the higher lift achieving airfoils was really similar, demoing that concentrating on the lift differences is sensible.

The concluding probe was changing the maximal camber value. The airfoils considered were the NACA0012, NACA2012, NACA4012 and the NACA6012. As the maximal camber moved towards the tracking border, higher values of lift were attained, with comparatively similar, or sometimes lower, drag forces. Although all these airfoils stalled, albeit at different angles of onslaught with the largest maximal camber procrastinating earliest, the stables were more marked at maximal camber values closer to the taking border. Therefore, while the NACA6012 airfoil stalled earliest, the overall retarding force experienced by this airfoil was still smaller than the other airfoils.

Chosen Loiter Aerofoil

Sing the analysis sing the loiter aerofoils the chosen loiter airfoil is the NACA4518, shown more clearly in Figure 18.

From this figure we can see that the optimum coefficient of lift of 1.1 is attained at a low angle of onslaught ( comparative to other airfoils investigated ) . Therefore, we can accomplish out optimum flight features earlier, leting for a better public presentation from our airfoil. Another of import feature of the airfoil is the highly low degrees of retarding force throughout the flight, viz. of the order of 0.03. This besides compliments the thought of the airfoil non sing a stall and therefore enabling a low retarding force flight.

Another of import characteristic of the airfoil reiterates the power of accomplishing the optimum lift at the lowest possible angle of onslaught. Therefore, if the airfoil does procrastinate at an angle greater than one shown here, ( & A ; gt ; 15 ) , so it would necessitate a big blast or external force to do the airfoil to procrastinate, since the alteration needed in angle of onslaught is every bit big as possible. This increases the aerofoils ability of high lift flight whilst non procrastinating.

Figure 18: NACA4518 airfoil features

Actuator Role

Since we have now found the optimum airfoils for optimum sail and loiter public presentation, we can now see how the two airfoils vary and what the function of the actuator will be.

Figure 19: Optimum sail and loiter airfoils

As we can see from Figure 19, the actuator will necessitate to morph the loiter airfoil into the sail airfoil and frailty versa for the complete flight. Possibly most obvious is the actuators function in changing the thicknesses between 15 % and 18 % of the overall chord length. A more elusive difference is the place of the upper limit

camber which is 60 % and 50 % of the chord length, sail and loiter severally. Finally, the maximal camber changed from 2 % to 4 % . These changed must be implemented by the actuator and therefore detectors may necessitate to be used to mensurate the three altering parametric quantities. Although these alterations may non look really important, they change the of the airfoil greatly under the different conditions the wing experiences, as shown by Figures 17 and 18.

Push Required

Another characteristic of the flight which will alter is the push required to keep consecutive and flat flight or climb/descend. First, allow us see the easier illustration of the sail flight government.

Since all the push will merely necessitate to get the better of the retarding force experienced during flight, a simple relationship can be determined.

( 12 )

If we merely see the retarding force associated with the relevant angle of onslaught which gives the relevant lift coefficient, we yield a drag coefficient of about 0.025 ( sing 3D effects, induced retarding force and force per unit area retarding force ) . Therefore, we can cipher a thrust demand of at least 0.439N.

Equation ( 12 ) does non use for the loiter conditions. If we consider Figure 20, we can see that the flight kineticss are significantly different. Using a force balance, we can infer the undermentioned thrust equation.

( 13 )

Adopting a similar method as the sail government, we reach a drag coefficient of 0.1224. Therefore, the push value needed for the ascent stage would be 1.31N, merely under three times the sail push demand. If we consider the descent government within the loiter status, so it is obvious to see less push would be needed since the weight of the aircraft is helping the descent.


The importance of understanding the aeromechanicss of an airfoil is of import in planing and optimizing an aerofoils public presentation. Thus usage for package such as XFOIL and DESFOIL are imperative deriving an penetration into airfoil aeromechanicss. Throughout this analysis, legion jobs have been encountered in the public presentation of an airfoil and therefore, debatable countries have been highlighted, understood and attended to.

Using DESFOIL and XFOIL, airfoils were designed to guarantee optimum public presentation from a MAV of certain dimensions and restraints. The future work includes constructing the MAV utilizing the analysis within this assignment to assist help the aerodynamic construction and guarantee the consequences attained within this authorship is right and accurate.

Therefore, it is summarised that the optimum public presentation in the sail flight government is attained by the usage of the NACA2615 airfoil and the NACA 4518 airfoil for the loiter government. The advantages lie in the degrees of lift attained, deficiency of procrastinating and low retarding force associated with flight.

Figure 20: Forces moving on an aircraft in flight

Further Reading

Principles of Aeromechanicss, James H Dwinnell, p62, 219-220

Laminar Boundary Layers, The University Press, Oxford, ( 1961 ) , p60-86

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *