An experiment was conducted to analyze the influence of composted silkworm litter – pupal waste ( SLPW ) and other organic manures on growing parametric quantities and leaf output of mulberry. The compost made of SLPW ( Silkworm litter – pupal waste ) was rich in alimentary content than the farm pace manure and vermicompost used in the experiment. The consequences clearly indicated that the application of SLPW + Vermicompost recorded significantly higher leaf output ( 32,098.5 kilogram ) and NPK content ( 3.11 % , 0.39 % and 2.48 % ) severally. Further, there was no important difference in the measure of chemical constituents of the foliages raised wholly either on SLPW or other manures. These consequences are discussed in relation to the suitableness of SLPW compost in bettering the mulberry leaf quality.

Cardinal word: Silkworm litter – pupal waste, FYM, Vermicompost, Mulberry.

Introduction

Sericulture is one of the most of import agro based industries which play a critical function in relieving rural unemployment and bettering the societal – economic position of rural common people. Mulberry ( Morus spp ) is the exclusive nutrient beginning for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The healthy growing of the silkworm and economic traits are mostly influenced by the nutritionary position of mulberry leaves fed to silkworm ( 1 ) . Massive usage of high dose of chemical fertilisers leads to depletion of foods and toxicity to the silkworms. Application of organic manure to mulberry harvest non merely increased growing but besides nutritionary quality of the mulberry leaves which influences silkworm growing and its economic traits. Besides, the frequent usage of chemical fertilisers for a drawn-out period deteriorates the dirt features and affects the handiness and consumption of foods to the workss ( 2 ) . Application of organic manure improves the physical, chemical and biological belongingss of dirt with direct on wet keeping, root growing, alimentary preservation, etc. The cost of the inorganic fertilisers can be reduced by utilizing traditional application of organic manures which can be reduced by autochthonal production by husbandmans themselves thereby effectual use of sericulture waste minimise the environment pollution and good option to curtail the usage of inorganic fertilisers. Hence, the present probe was carried out with the aim of measuring the consequence of compost on growing and output of mulberry.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

An experiment was conducted at the Department of Sericulture, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore. An experiment was laid out with V1 mulberry in randomised block design with seven interventions and three reproductions per intervention. The experiment was repeated twice in four twelvemonth old mulberry workss. Before originating the experiment the mulberry workss were pruned, weeds were removed and earthing up was done. SLPW compost @ 6 metric tons /ha/yr, vermicompost 6 tonnes/ha/yr, FYM 20 tonnes/ha/yr were applied at 15 yearss interval of sniping. Combinations of SLPW + FYM, SLPW + Vermicompost were besides applied apart from chemical fertilisers at the rate of 300:120:120 kilograms /ha/ yr. A control without using manures was besides maintained individually. The information on growing and output parametric quantities were recorded on 30th and 60th twenty-four hours after application of compost. Plants were selected indiscriminately and labeled in each secret plan for entering growing and output properties viz. , works tallness, figure of foliages per works, figure of subdivisions per works, shoot weight and output per hectare.

Plant samples were collected from each intervention at chosen definite intervals for analysing the alimentary position of mulberry foliages. The samples were foremost air dried, subsequently oven dried at 60-70 & A ; deg ; C to achieve changeless weight. The dried samples were land in a Willey factory with unstained steel blades and stored in labelled containers for farther chemical analysis of foods viz. , Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium contents of the foliages were analyzed and expressed as per centum on the dry weight of mulberry foliages ( 3 ) .

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The intervention T4 ( Silkworm litter – pupal waste ( SLPW ) compost + Vermicompost ) recorded significantly higher works tallness ( 164.4 centimeter ) followed by the intervention T6 ( NPK fertilisers ) ( 161 centimeter ) . The lowest works tallness of 147 centimeter was recorded in the T7 intervention ( untreated ) . The maximal figure of foliages ( 222 ) per works were obtained in the T4 ( SLPW compost + Vermicompost ) due to the combined application of SLPW compost + Vermicompost increased leaf output. The minimal Numberss of foliages ( 105 ) were observed in the control ( T7 ) ( Table 1 ) .

Table 1. Influence of SLPW compost and other organic manures on works tallness and figure of foliages of mulberry

Treatments

Plant tallness ( centimeter )

Number of leaves/plant

30

60

Mean

30

60

Mean

T1

149.2

158.5

153.8

120.0

140

130

T2

145.9

157.5

151.7

101.0

130

115

T3

151.7

164.5

158.1

175.0

200

188

T4

156.2

170.6

163.4

193.0

250

222

T5

146.4

155.3

150.9

130.0

190

160

T6

154.7

168.2

161.5

187.0

197

192

T7

143.1

150.9

147.0

90.0

120

105

Mean

149.6

160.8

155.2

142

175

159

SE.d

0.748

5.370

0.872

0.854

C.D ( 0.05 )

1.630

11.700

1.901

1.861

T1 – SLPW Compost @ 6000 Kg/ha/yr, T2- Farmyard manure ( FYM ) @ 20000 kg/ha/yr, T3 – Vermicompost ( VC ) @ 6000 kg/ha/yr, T4- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + VC @ 3000 kilogram /ha/yr, T5- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + FYM @ 10000 kg/ha/yr, T6- NPK Fertilizers @ 320: 120:120 NPK/kg/ha/yr, T7 -Control.

Highest chlorophyll content ( 107 mg g-1 ) was observed in T4 intervention due to combined application of SLPW compost + Vermicompost which was significantly better than all other interventions and lowest chlorophyll content of 87 mg g-1 was noticed in T7 ( untreated ) ( Table 2 ) .

Table 2. Influence of SLPW compost other organic manures on Physiological analysis of

mulberry

Treatments

Entire chlorophyll content ( mg/g )

Moisture content ( % )

30

60

Mean

30

60

Mean

T1

86

120

103

72.3

70.5

71.4

T2

83

116

100

71.0

69.0

70.0

T3

77

102

90

77.6

73.5

75.5

T4

90

123

107

79.4

75.6

77.5

T5

81

107

94

75.2

71.0

73.1

T6

83

110

97

78.4

74.5

76.4

T7

74

99

87

70.2

66.7

68.5

Mean

76

105

97

74.9

71.5

73.2

SE.d

1.579

1.578

0.366

0.717

C.D ( 0.05 )

3.441

3.439

0.799

1.563

T1 – SLPW Compost @ 6000 Kg/ha/yr, T2- Farmyard manure ( FYM ) @ 20000 kg/ha/yr, T3 – Vermicompost ( VC ) @ 6000 kg/ha/yr, T4- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + VC @ 3000 kilogram /ha/yr, T5- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + FYM @ 10000 kg/ha/yr, T6- NPK Fertilizers @ 320: 120:120 NPK/kg/ha/yr, T7 -Control.

The positive consequence of organic manures on chlorophyll content of mulberry foliages might be attributed to the fact that N is a component of chlorophyll molecule and all aminic acids in proteins and lipoids that moving as a structural compounds of the chloroplast ( 4 ) . Moisture content in mulberry foliages is a really of import factor which influences on silkworm growing. In the present survey, intervention T4 ( SLPW compost + Vermicompost ) recorded significantly higher wet content of 77.5 per centum increased the maintaining quality of the mulberry leaves thereby, salvaging the clip in picking of mulberry foliages. This was followed by the intervention T6 ( NPK fertilisers ) ( 76.4 % ) . The lowest wet of 68.1 per centum was registered in T7 ( untreated ) .

There was important addition in N content ( 3.11 % ) when mulberry was treated with SLPW + Vermicompost ( T4 ) , which was followed by T3 ( Vermicompost ) ( 2.80 % ) and minimal N content of 2.4 per centum was recorded in T7 intervention ( untreated ) . The maximal P content ( 0.39 % ) was recorded in T4 ( SLPW + Vermicompost ) ( T4 ) and minimal value ( 0.24 % ) was registered in T7 ( untreated ) . Maximal K content ( 2.48 % ) was observed in combined intervention of SLPW compost + Vermicompost ( T4 ) followed by T6 intervention ( NPK fertilisers ) ( 2.40 % ) . This was followed by the interventions, T3 ( Vermicompost entirely ) ( 2.35 % ) and

T1 ( SLPW compost entirely ) ( 2.34 % ) which were on par with each other. Minimum value of 0.24 per centum was recorded in T7 ( untreated ) ( Table 3 ) .

Table 3. Influence of SLPW compost and other organic manures on Nutrient content in mulberry foliage.

Treatment

Nitrogen ( % )

Phosphorus ( % )

Potassium ( % )

30th twenty-four hours

60th twenty-four hours

Mean

30th twenty-four hours

60th twenty-four hours

Mean

30th twenty-four hours

60th twenty-four hours

Mean

T1

2.38

2.50

2.44

0.32

0.33

0.32

2.31

2.34

2.34

T2

2.31

2.80

2.56

0.28

0.30

0.29

2.03

2.20

2.20

T3

2.50

3.10

2.80

0.36

0.37

0.36

2.29

2.35

2.35

T4

2.81

3.40

3.11

0.38

0.41

0.39

2.46

2.48

2.48

T5

2.40

2.80

2.60

0.29

0.34

0.32

2.25

2.29

2.29

T6

2.41

3.00

2.71

0.36

0.38

0.37

2.37

2.40

2.40

T6

2.30

2.50

2.40

0.21

0.27

0.24

2.02

2.15

2.15

Mean

2.45

2.87

2.66

0.31

0.34

0.33

2.25

2.32

2.32

SE.d

0.009

0.079

0.008

0.009

0.015

0.009

C.D ( 0.05 )

0.020

0.173

0.019

0.020

0.034

0.020

T1 – SLPW Compost @ 6000 Kg/ha/yr, T2- Farmyard manure ( FYM ) @ 20000 kg/ha/yr, T3 – Vermicompost ( VC ) @ 6000 kg/ha/yr, T4- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + VC @ 3000 kilogram /ha/yr, T5- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + FYM @ 10000 kg/ha/yr, T6- NPK Fertilizers @ 320: 120:120 NPK/kg/ha/yr, T7 -Control.

Combined application of SLPW compost + Vermicompost helped in supply of foods for mineralization procedure and bettering the physical and chemical belongingss of the dirt which are chiefly indispensable for elaborate growing of mulberry. It besides enhances the microbial activity which influenced the consumption of foods from dirt to workss. ( 5 ) utilized the silkworm litter as an organic fertiliser and analysed the silkworm body waste which revealed that higher composing of N, P, K, Na and C when compared to overawe droppings or FYM ( 6 ) . The important addition in leaf output may be due to decelerate release of foods, minor and trace elements from organic beginnings which have contributed for better works growing. Similar findings were in understanding with the observed antecedently by ( 7 ) and ( 8 ) who reported that the usage of combination of sericultural waste and vermicompost resulted in gradual release of macro foods to the workss increased the leaf output. These consequences clearly indicated that the combined application of SLPW compost + Vermicompost increased the NPK to the mulberry workss than control which resulted in active metabolic procedure, addition H2O usage efficiency ; betterment in leaf enlargement, alar bud growing, shoot canopy, improved photosynthetic surface country and saccharide use.

The maximal shoot weight ( 46.3 g ) was observed in T4 ( SLPW compost + Vermicompost ) , followed by the intervention T6 ( NPK fertilisers ) ( 41.9 g )

the lowest value ( 33.7 g ) was recorded in T7 ( untreated ) . Among the interventions, the T4 ( SLPW compost + Vermicompost ) recorded the maximal figure of subdivisions ( 17.5 ) while lowest ( 9 ) figure of subdivisions was recorded in the intervention T7 ( untreated ) . Highest leaf output ( 32,098.5 kilogram ) was obtained in T4 ( SLPW compost + Vermicompost ) followed by T3 ( Vermicompost entirely ) ( 27,781.5 ) and lowest output ( 15,554.0 kilogram ) was recorded in intervention T7 ( untreated ) ( Table 4 ) ( Fig 1 ) .

Table 4. Influence of SLPW compost other organic manures on Yield properties of

mulberry

Treatments

No of branches/plant

Shoot weight

Output /kg/ha/ twelvemonth

30

60

Mean

30

60

Mean

30

60

Mean

T1

10.0

16.0

13.0

30.8

50.8

40.8

17775.0

20739.0

19257.0

T2

9.0

14.0

11.5

24.3

45.2

34.8

14962.0

19258.0

17110.0

T3

13.0

18.0

15.5

26.5

47.7

37.1

25934.0

29629.0

27781.5

T4

15.0

20.0

17.5

33.5

59.1

46.3

27162.0

37035.0

32098.5

T5

12.0

17.0

14.5

24.2

46.9

35.6

19258.0

28146.0

23702.0

T6

14.0

19.0

16.5

28.4

55.4

41.9

26317.0

29183.0

27750.0

T7

7.0

11.0

9.0

23.7

43.7

33.7

13332.0

17776.0

15554.0

Mean

11.4

16.4

13.9

28

51

39

20677.1

25966.6

23321.9

SE.d

0.617

0.872

0.596

1.650

0.845

0.755

C.D ( 0.05 )

1.344

1.901

1.299

3.595

1.841

1.647

T1 – SLPW Compost @ 6000 Kg/ha/yr, T2- Farmyard manure ( FYM ) @ 20000 kg/ha/yr, T3 – Vermicompost ( VC ) @ 6000 kg/ha/yr, T4- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + VC @ 3000 kilogram /ha/yr, T5- SLPW Compost @ 6000 kg/ha/yr + FYM @ 10000 kg/ha/yr, T6- NPK Fertilizers @ 320: 120:120 NPK/kg/ha/yr, T7 -Control

Fig 1. Influence of SLPW compost and other organic manures on output of mulberry

foliage.

The high quality in output was chiefly due to betterment of growing parametric quantities thereby increasing output with the combined application of SLPW compost + Vermicompost than single application. ( Table 4 ) . Compost activated tremendous population of bacteriums, Fungis and actinomycetes released plant hormones which stimulated the works growing ( 9 ) . ( 8 ) besides reported that composted manure produced utilizing mulberry waste in sericultural farm and silkworm litter was found to be more efficient than FYM of cow droppings beginning in the production of mulberry foliages in footings of measure and quality. The application of the SLPW compost might hold increased the release of macro every bit good as micronutrients, which interm increased dry affair production, works tallness and alimentary consumption taking to higher mulberry leaf output. Compost or organic manures caused favorable alterations in dirt reaction and enriched the alimentary position of dirt ( 9 ) . These good effects of compost on dirt finally resulted in increased harvest outputs. Alternatively of using rapid alimentary releasing and effectual fertilisers, it is better to use organic manures as they support better growing of mulberry workss and in bend higher output and quality ( 10 ) .

Therefore from the present findings, it is concluded that combined application of SLPW compost ( produced out of sericultural wastes consisting silkworm litter and silkworm pupae ) + Vermicompost increased alimentary handiness and prolong it over a period of clip. It is extremely good for mulberry cultivation and is much effectual than conventional usage of FYM and other organic manures. Further research will be needed to analyze the consequence of mulberry leaves grown with sericultural compost and vermicompost on the impact of silkworm growing and its economic traits.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *