Equally important, during the sass a new political agenda advocating racial equality arose in the African American community, particularly in its growing middle class, Championing the agenda were black Astoria and sociologist W. E. 8.

Du Bois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP), which was founded in 1909 to advance the rights of blacks. This agenda was also reflected in the efforts of Jamaican- born black nationalist Marcus Graver, whose Back to Africa movement inspired racial pride among working-class blacks in the United States in the sass. African American literature and arts had begun a steady development just before the turn Of the century. In the performing arts, black musical theater featured such accomplished artists as songwriter Bob Cole and composer].

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Roseland Johnson, brother Of writer James Weldon Johnson. Jazz and blues music moved with black populations from the South and Midwest into the bars and cabarets Of Harlem. In literature, the poetry Of Paul Laurence Dunbar and the fiction Of Charles W. Senescent in the late sass were among the earliest works of African Americans to receive national recognition. By the end of World War the fiction of Brief Summary of the Harlem Renaissance.